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英文建筑专业词汇解释.doc

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英文 建筑 专业 词汇 解释
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专业词汇解释 Accessory: A supplementary building product, such as a door, window, skylight, ventilator, louver, etc. Anchor Bolts: Bolts used to anchor structural members to a concrete floor, foundation or other support. Usually refers to the bolts at the bottom of all columns and door jambs. Anchor Bolt Plan: A plan view of a building(s) foundations showing all dimensions and sections required to properly locate the anchor bolts, including the projections of the bolts above the concrete surface, required recess, etc. Column reactions (magnitude and direction), and base plate dimensions are also included. Angle: A hot rolled member with two legs forming a 90o angle. Approval Drawings: Drawings sent to the customer to verify design and dimensions and to verify the sales contract description of materials and services the manufacturer has agreed to furnish. Assembly: Two or more components bolted together. Astragal: A bent plate attached to one leaf of double sliding or hinged doors to prevent dust and light ingress. Auxiliary Loads: All specified dynamic live loads, other than the basic design loads, which the building must safely withstand. Examples are loads imposed by crane systems, material handling systems and impact loads. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Back-up Plates: Additional plates used in connections to provide sufficient bolt grip, allow for erection tolerances, or increase strength. Base Angle: A continuous angle fixed to the floor slab or to the grade beam to enable the attachment of wall panels. Base Plate: The endplate of a column which rests on the supporting substructure surface. Bay: The space between the center lines of frames or primary supporting members in the longitudinal direction of the building. Also called Bay Spacing or Bay Length. Bead Mastic: A sealant furnished in a continuous roll, normally used for sealing end laps of roof panels. See also Endlap Mastic. Beam: A horizontal structural member designed primarily to resist moments. Bent Plate: A plate bent to form an angle. Bill of Materials: A list of items or components used for fabrication, shipping, receiving, and accounting purposes. Bird Screen: Wire mesh used to prevent birds from entering the building through ventilators, louvers and roof monitors. Blind Rivet: A small headed pin with an expandable shank for joining light gauge metal. Typically used to attach flashing, gutters, etc. Also referred to as a Pop Rivet. Brace Grip: Galvanized steel strands formed into a helical hair pin shape that is wrapped tightly on the strand at the end of the cable brace. Brace Rods/Cables: Rods or cables placed diagonally in the roof and walls for the purpose of transferring wind loads to the foundations and longitudinally stabilizing the building. Braced Bay: The bay where bracing is provided. Bracket: A structural support projecting from a column or rafter to which another structural member is fastened. Example: Brackets supporting crane runway beams. Bridge Crane: Overhead traveling crane supported by rails which are in turn supported by crane runway beams. Builder: A general contractor or sub-contractor responsible for providing and erecting pre-engineered buildings. Building Codes: Regulations developed by recognized agencies establishing minimum building requirements for licensing, safety and functionality purposes such as setbacks, fire regulations, spacing and clearances. Building codes usually address acceptable design codes. An example of a building code is the Uniform Building Code (UBC). Building Width: The lateral width of the building measured from out to out of sidewall steel lines. Built-up Section: A structural member, usually an “I“ shape, made from individual flat plates welded together. Butt Plate: The end plate of a structural member which usually rests against a similar endplate of another member to form a moment resisting connection. Also called Splice Plate, End Plate, or Cap Plate. By-pass Girt: The girt which passes continuously along the outside flanges of the columns. By-pass Mounted: See Exterior Mounted. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- “C“ Section: A member formed into a “C“ shaped profile by cold roll-forming from coils. Cable Catch Assembly: The operating handle used to open and close the ridge ventilator. Cables: Used for cable bracing. Can also be used to operate ridge vent dampers and for temporary bracing. See Brace Cables. Cantilever: A projecting beam that is supported and restrained at one end only. Canopy: An overhanging or projecting roof structure, below the eave level, supported at one end only. Cap Plate: A plate located at the top of a column or end of a beam. Also referred to as End Plate. Capillary Action: The action of water rising to a higher level. Catwalk: A narrow walkway used to provide access to mechanical equipment normally supported on roof platforms. Caulking: A sealant used in making watertight joints. Channel (Hot Rolled): A member formed, while in a semi-molten state at the steel mill, into a “C“ shaped profile having standard dimensions and properties specified by a relevant standard specification. Checkered Plate: Flat hot rolled plate with raised checkered design to prevent slipping; used for industrial equipment platforms, catwalks, stair treads, etc. Clear Height: The vertical dimension from the finished floor level to the lowest underside point of the rafter. Clear Span: A building without internal columns. Clip: A plate or angle used to fasten two or more members together. Closer: Mechanical device, usually attached to a hinged door, which automatically closes the door. Closure Strip: Purpose-made foam fillers to fit inside and outside profiles of roof and wall panels providing a weather-tight seal. Also known as Foam Closure. Coil: A roll of steel sheet or wire. Cold-Formed Member: A light gauge structural member produced from coiled steel stock running through a series of rolls at normal room temperatures. Collateral Load: The static load other than the basic design loads such as sprinklers, mechanical and electrical systems, ceilings, etc. Column: A vertical structural member used in a building to transfer loads from the main roof beams, trusses or rafters to the foundation. Component: An independent part of an assembly. Concrete Notch: A rebate or notch formed along the edge of the concrete floor slab or grade beam, allowing wall panels to end below the floor level thus preventing ingress of dust or water. Continuous Beam: A beam which has more than two points of support. Continuous Ridge Vent: Two or more ridge ventilators mounted on the building ridge that allow air circulation. See also Ridge Ventilator. Corner Column: A column at any corner of a building. Corner columns may be primary rigid frame columns or post-and-beam columns. Counter Flashing: Trim used to connect the sidewall sheeting of a main building to the roof sheeting of a lower building. Crane: A machine designed to lift and/or move material by means of a hoist. Crane Beam: A beam that supports an overhead traveling bridge crane. On underhung bridge cranes, it also acts as a crane rail. Also known as a Crane Runway Beam. Crane Bracket: Structural support welded to the primary building frame to permit attachment of a crane runway beam. See also Bracket. Crane Bridge: One or two girders or box sections supported on end carriages. See also Bridge Crane. Crane Capacity: The maximum weight a crane can safely lift. Crane capacity depends on the standard design of the crane components and their supports. Crane Rail: Rail welded or bolted to a crane beam forming the track on which the bridge crane wheels travel. Crane Stopper: A small vertical member welded to the top of the crane beam to stop the crane bridge at the end of the crane run area. Cross Section: A view formed by a plane cutting through an object usually at right angles to its axes. Curb: Raised flashing around roof openings to form waterproof openings. See also Roof Curb. Curved Eave: Curved panels provided at the eave. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Damper: Baffle plate in a ridge ventilator that can be opened or closed using the cable catch assembly. Dead Load: The self weight of the pre-engineered building structure including all its components such as frames, floors, secondary members, sheeting, bolts, etc. Design Codes: Regulations developed by recognized agencies establishing design loads, procedures, and construction details for structures. Examples are: MBMA, AISC, AISI, AWS, etc. Diagonal Bracing: See Brace Rods/Cables. Door Guide: An angle, channel, or proprietary product used to restrain a door leaf or curtain during its opening and closing. Door Stopper: A clip bolted to the vertical door member to prevent opening beyond the door limit. Double Channel: Double or back-to-back “C“ sections stitch-bolted together. Double Faced Tape: Used as an aid to fix fiberglass insulation. Double Sliding Door: Sliding door with two door leaves. Downspout: Cold-formed sheet metal section used to carry water from the gutter of a building to the ground or storm drainage system. Downspout Elbow/Shoe: Cold-formed sheet metal section, matching the downspout profile, attached to the lower end of a downspout and curved in such a way as to direct water away from a wall. Downspout Straps: Metal straps used to fix the downspouts to the sidewalls. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Eave: A line along the sidewall formed by the intersection of the inside faces or planes of the roof and the sidewall panels. Eave Gutter: Gutter at the eave of a building. Eave Height: The vertical dimension from the finished floor level to the top of the eave strut. Eave Strut: A structural member, located at the eave, used for supporting the roof panels and the wall panels. Eave Strut Clip: A clip used to support the eave strut. Eave Trim/Flashing: A sheet metal closure whose function is primarily to provide weather-tightness at the eave between the eave gutter and the wall panels. Edge Distance: The perpendicular distance between the plate edge and the center of the bolt hole. Elevation: (a) Distance above or below a prescribed datum or reference. (b) Engineering term referring to any wall view of a structure. End Bay: The first or last bay in the building, as opposed to interior bay. It is the spacing between the outside face of the outer flange of the endwall columns and the center line of the first interior column. End Lap: A term used to describe the lap at a purlin location where the end of one panel overlaps the end of the panel below it. End Lap Mastic: Sealant, in extruded bead form, used to seal end laps of roof panels for weather-tightness. Also called Bead Mastic. End Plate: A plate welded at the end of a member. Endwall: A term used to describe the entire composition of a building end. See Post & Beam Endwall or Rigid Frame Endwall. End Framing: Framing located at the endwall of a building which supports the loads acting on a portion of the end bay. Endwall Post/Column: A vertical member located at the endwall which supports the girts and endwall rafter. Endwall Rafter: Normally a cold-formed “C“ section supported by end posts of post-and-beam endwalls. Endwall rafters can also be built-up or hot rolled sections if required by design loads Endwall Roof Extension: Roof cantilevered beyond the endwall. Erection: The on site assembling of pre-fabricated components to form the complete structure. Erection Drawings: Drawings and erection instructions which identify all the individual components in sufficient detail to permit the proper assembly of all parts of the metal building system furnished by the seller. Expansion Joint: A weather-tight joint across the width of the building allowing for expansion and contraction. Exterior Mounted: A girt system where the girts are mounted outside the columns and are attached directly to the outside column flange. Also called By-pass Mounted. Eye Bolt: Used in conjunction with a hillside washer for tensioning cable braces. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Fabrication: The manufacturing process usually performed in a plant to convert raw material into finished metal building components. The main operations are cold- forming, cutting, punching, welding, cleaning and painting. Fascia: An accessory whose function is to enhance the appearance of a wall. Also used to cover the eave or gable of a building. Field Work: Modification or rectification carried out on site. Fin Neck Bolt: Flat dome headed bolt used in framed openings, fascias, and mezanines. Finished Floor: Top of the concrete slab or the finished concrete surface. Fixed Base: A column base that is designed to resist rotation as well as horizontal or vertical movement. Flange: The projecting edge of a structural member. Flange Brace: An angle member extending between girts or purlins to the inner flange of columns or rafters respectively, to provide them with lateral support and stability. Flashing: A sheet metal closure used to provide weather-tightness in a structure. Flowable Mastic: Supplied in a nozzled cartridge. Used to seal overlapping flashing, gutter joints, etc. Flush Mounted: A girt system where the outside flanges of the girts and columns are flush. The girts are supported by the use of girt clips bolted to the column webs. Footing: Reinforced concrete base that provides support for a column. Force: The action of one body on another body which changes or tends to change its state of rest or motion. A force may be expressed in kilonewton(s) (kN), or other similar units. Foundation: The substructure which supports a building or other structure. Usually constructed in concrete. Framed Opening: Framing (headers, sills, and jambs) and flashing which surround an opening in a building. Usually provided to accommodate field installed accessories such as sliding doors, roll-up doors, etc. Framing: Primary and secondary members (columns, rafters, girts, purlins, brace cables, etc.) which when connected together make up the skeleton of a structure to which the covering can be fastened. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gable: The triangular portion of the endwall of a building directly under the sloping roof and above the eave height line.
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