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隧道专业外语.doc

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隧道 专业 外语
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Part 1 General words岩土工程Geotechnical engineering基础工程Foundation engineering 土soil ,earth`土力学soil mechanics 周期荷载 cyclic loading 卸载 再加载reloading粘弹性地基 viscoelastic foundation 粘滞阻尼 viscous damping 剪切模量 shear modulus 土动力学 soil dynamics 应力路径 stress path Part 2 Types of soil残积土 residual soil 地下水 groundwater 地下水位 groundwater level /groundwater table 粘土矿物 clay minerals 次生矿物secondary minerals 滑坡 landslide 钻孔柱状图 bore hole columnar section 工程地质勘察 engineering geologic investigation 漂石 boulder 卵石 cobble 砂石 gravel 砾砂 gravelly sand 粗砂 coarse sand 中砂 medium sand 细砂 fine sand 粉土 silty sand 粘性土 clayey soil 粘土 clay 粉质粘土 silty clay 砂质粉土 sandy silt 粘质粉土 clayey silt 饱和土 saturated soil 非饱和土 unsaturated soil 填土 filled soil Part 3 Permeability and seepage达西定律 Darcy’s law 管涌 piping 流土 flowing soil 砂沸 sand boiling 流网 flow net 渗流 seepage 渗漏 leakage 渗透压力 seepage (force) pressure 渗透性 permeability 水力梯度 hydraulic gradient 渗透系数 coefficient of permeability Part 4 Deformation and stress of foundation软土 soft soil 打入桩(负)摩阻力 (negative) skin friction of driven pile 有效应力 effective stress 总应力 total stress 十字板抗剪强度 field vane shear strength 低活性 low activity 灵敏度 sensitivity 三轴试验 triaxial test 基础设计 foundation design 再压缩 recompaction 承载力 bearing capacity 土体 soil mass 接触压力 contact pressure 集中荷载 concentrated load 半无限弹性体 a semi-infinite elastic solid 均质 homogeneous 各向同性 isotropic 条基 strip footing 方形独立基础 square spread footing 下卧层(土) underlying soil (stratum ,strata) 恒载 /静载dead load 持续荷载 sustained load 活载 live load 短期瞬时荷载 short –term transient load 长期荷载 long-term transient load 折算荷载 reduced load 沉降 settlement 变形 deformation 套管 casing 堤(防) dike=dyke 粘粒粒组 clay fraction 物理性质 physical properties 路基 subgrade 级配良好土 well-graded soil 级配不良土 poorly-graded soil 筛子 sieve 摩尔-库仑破坏条件 Mohr-Coulomb failure condition 有限元法 FEM=finite element method 极限平衡法 limit equilibrium method 孔隙水压力 pore water pressure 先期固结压力 preconsolidation pressure 压缩模量 modulus of compressibility 压缩系数 coefficent of compressibility 压缩指数 compression index 回弹指数 swelling index 自重应力 geostatic stress 附加应力 additional stress 最终沉降 final settlement 滑移线 slip line Part 5 Excavation and dewatering of foundation开挖 excavation 降水 dewatering 基坑失稳 failure of foundation 基坑围护 bracing of foundation pit (基坑)底隆起 bottom heave=basal heave 挡土墙 retaining wall 孔压分布 pore-pressure distribution 降低地下水位法 dewatering method 井点系统 well point system 深井点 deep well point 真空井点 vacuum well point 支撑围护 braced cuts 支撑开挖 braced excavation 支撑挡板 braced sheeting Part 6 Deep foundation桩基础 pile foundation 灌注桩 cast –in-place pile沉管灌注桩 diving casting cast-in-place pile 钻孔桩 bored pile 机控异型灌注桩 special-shaped cast-in-place pile 嵌岩灌注桩 piles set into rock 夯扩桩 rammed bulb pile 钻孔墩基础 belled pier foundation 钻孔扩底墩 drilled-pier foundation 预制混凝土桩 precast concrete pile 钢桩 steel pile 钢管桩 steel pipe pile 钢板桩 steel sheet pile 预应力混凝土桩 prestressed concrete pile 预应力混凝土管桩 prestressed concrete pipe pile 沉井(箱 )caisson foundation 地下连续墙 diaphragm 摩擦桩 friction pile 端承桩 end-bearing pile 波动方程分析 wave equation analysis 承台 pile cap 单桩承载力 bearing capacity of single pile 单桩横向载荷试验 lateral pile load test 单桩横向极限承载力 ultimate lateral resistance of single pile 单桩竖向静荷载试验 static load test of pile 单桩竖向容许承载力 vertical allowable load capacity 低桩承台 low pile cap 高桩承台 high-rise pile cap 单桩抗拔极限承载力 vertical ultimate uplift resistance of single pile 静压桩 silent piling 抗拔桩 uplift pile 抗滑桩 anti-slide pile 群桩 pile groups 群桩效率系数(η) efficiency factor of pile groups 群桩效应 efficiency of pile groups 桩基动测 dynamic pile testing 最后贯入度 final set 桩动荷载试验 dynamic load test of pile 桩的完整性试验 pile integrity test 桩头 pile head=butt 桩端(头) pile tip=pile point=pile toe 桩距 pile spacing 桩位布置图 pile plan 桩的布置 arrangement of piles =pile layout 群桩作用 group action 桩端阻 end bearing=tip resistance 桩侧阻 skin(side) friction=shaft resistance 桩垫 pile cushion 打桩(振动) pile driving(by vibration) 拔桩试验 pile pulling test 桩靴 pile shoe 打桩噪音 pile noise 打桩机 pile rig Part 7 Ground treatment建筑地基处理技术规范 technical code for ground treatment of building垫层法 cushion method预压法 preloading method强夯法 dynamic compaction method强夯置换法 dynamic compaction replacement method振冲法 vibroflotation method 砂石桩 sand-gravel pile /pile-stone column 水泥粉煤灰碎石桩 cement-flyash-gravel pile(CFG) 水泥土搅拌桩 cement mixing pile水泥桩 cement column 石灰桩 lime pile /lime column高压喷射注浆法 jet grouting method夯实水泥土桩 rammed-cement-soil pile 灰土挤密桩 lime-soil compaction pile /lime-soil compacted column 化学加固法 chemical stabilization method 表层压实法 surface compaction method超载预压法 surcharge preloading method真空预压法 vacuum preloading method袋装砂井法sand wick method土工织物 geofabric /geotextile 复合地基 composite foundation 加筋法 reinforcement method 降低地下水固结法 dewatering consolidation method 冷热处理法 freezing and heating method膨胀土地基处理 expansive ground treatment 山区地基处理 ground treatment in mountain area 湿陷性黄土地基处理 collapsible loess treatment 人工地基 artificial foundation 天然地基 natural foundation 褥垫 pillow 软土地基 soft clay ground 砂井 sand drain 树根桩 root pile 塑料排水带 plastic drain 碎石桩 stone column/gravel pile (复合地基)置换率 (composite foundation) replacement ratio Part 8 固结 consolidation 太沙基固结理论 Terzzaghi’s consolidation theory 巴隆固结理论 Barraon’s consolidation theory 比奥固结理论Biot’s consolidation theory 超固结比 over consolidation ration (OCR) 超固结土 overconsolidation soil 超孔压力 excess pore water pressure 多维固结 multi-dimensional consolidation 一维固结 one-dimensional consolidation 主固结 primary consolidation 次固结 secondary consolidation 固结度 degree of consolidation 固结试验 consolidation test 固结曲线 consolidation curve 时间因子 time factor Tv 固结系数 coefficient of consolidation 前期固结压力 preconsolidation pressure 有效应力原理 principle of effective stress K0 固结 consolidation under K0 condition Part 9 抗剪强度 shear strength 不排水抗剪强度 undrained shear strength 残余强度 residual strength 长期强度 long-term strength 峰值强度 peak strength 剪胀 dilatation 抗剪强度有效应力法 effective stress approach of shear strength 抗剪强度总应力法 total stress approach of shear strength 莫尔-库仑理论 Mohr-Coulomb theory 内摩擦角 angle of internal friction 粘聚力 cohesion 破坏准则 failure criterion 十字板抗剪强度 vane strength 无侧限抗压强度 unconfined compression strength有效应力破坏包线 effective stress failure envelopePart 10 Constitutive model弹性模型Elastic model非线性弹性模型Nonlinear elastic model弹塑性模型Elastoplastic model粘弹性模型Viscoelastic model边界面模型Boundary surface model邓肯-张模型Duncan-Chang model刚塑性模型Rigid plastic model帽模型Cap model加工软化Work softening加工硬化Work hardening剑桥模型Cambridge model理想弹塑性模型Ideal elastoplastic model莫尔-库仑屈服准则Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion屈服面Yield surface弹性半空间地基模型Elastic half-space foundation model弹性模量Elastic modulusPart 11 Bearing capacity of foundation soil冲切破坏Punching shear failure整体剪切破坏General shear failure局部剪切破坏Local shear failure极限平衡状态State of limit equilibrium地基稳定性Stability of soil/rock foundation地基极限承载力Ultimate bearing capacity of soil/rock foundation地基容许承载力Allowable bearing capacity of soil/rock foundationPart 12 earth pressure and slope stability analysis主动土压力Active earth pressure被动土压力Passive earth pressure静止土压力Earth pressure at rest休止角Angle of repose边坡稳定安全系数Safety factor of slope条分法Slices methodPart 13 retaining wall挡土墙稳定性Stability of retaining wall基础墙Foundation wall扶壁式挡土墙Counter retaining wall悬臂式挡土墙Cantilever retaining wall悬臂式板桩墙Cantilever sheet pile wall重力式挡土墙Gravity retaining wall锚定板挡土墙Anchored plate retaining wall锚定板板桩墙Anchored sheet pile wallPart 14 Soil test高压固结试验High pressure consolidation testK0 固结试验Consolidation under K0 condition变水头渗透试验Falling head permeability test不固结不排水三轴试验Unconsolidated-undrained triaxial test固结不排水/排水三轴试验Consolidated undrained/drained triaxial test击实试验Compaction test固结快剪试验Consolidated quick direct shear test快剪试验Quick direct shear test土工模型试验Geotechnical model test离心模型试验Centrifugal model test直剪仪Direct shear apparatusPart 15 In situ test标准贯入试验Standard penetration test (SPT)表面波试验Surface wave test(SWT)动力触探试验Dynamic penetration test(DPT)静力触探试验Static cone penetration test跨孔试验Cross-hole test螺旋板载荷试验Screw plate test旁压试验Pressuremeter test轻便触探试验Light sounding test深层沉降观测Deep settlement measurement现场渗透试验Field permeability test原位空隙水压量测In-situ pore water pressure measurement原位(土、岩石)试验In-situ soil/rock test直剪试验Direct shear test直接单剪试验Direct simple shear test动三轴试验Dynamic triaxial test自(共)振柱试验Free(resonance) vibration column test隧道Tunnel水平隧道Horizontal gallery明挖法Cut and cover沉管法Immersed tube入口隧道或引道隧道 Access tunnel竖井shaft斜井 Inclined shaft 洞室cavern 天然洞室 Natural cavern 人工洞室 Artificial cavern 地下综合建筑 Underground complex 尺寸Size,dimension特小断面 Mini section 小断面Small section中断面 Medium section 特大断面 Very large section 短Short length 中长 Medium length长大Long length 特长大 Very long length 断面形状 Section shape 圆形 Circular shape 马蹄形 Horseshoe shape矩形Rectangular shape卵形 Egg shape箱形 Box shape 内部净空断面形状Inside shape 开挖断面形状 Outside or excavation shape埋深 Tunnel depth 明挖回填 Cut and cover 浅埋 Shallow depth中埋 Medium depth深埋Deep depth特深埋Very deep depth用途 Purpose or use 调查 investigation地质调查 Ground investigation 导洞 Pilot tunnel调查孔或坑道Pilot bore铁路rail干线 Main line 地铁metro 公路road人行道 pedestrian车站Station上水道Water supply 水利发电 Hydraulic power 有压与无压隧洞 Pressure or non pressure tunnels 分水渠River diversion 洪水 Storm water排水Drainage水渠Aqueduct 冷气cooling air冷却水排水 Cooling water outfall 航道 navigation 下水道Sewerage地域暖气District heating电缆 cable 热水Hot water电力-通信 Power-telecommunication 通风 Ventilation煤气Gas工厂factory 发电所 Generating station 储藏 storage 流体和固体储藏 Fluids and solids storage停车parking办公室,商店Office,shop军事Military 人防 Defence,protection 多目的,多功能Multi service采矿 Mining 地下建筑物各部分名称Parts of cross section 仰拱 Invert arch底板floor 拱部或拱顶部roof 拱顶 crown 拱脚 Springer拱肩shoulders刹尖 key边墙 wall 墙脚 feet 腿部leg膝部knee 开挖面或掌子面face 形状shape 衬砌 lining 曲隅部bend交叉部 crossing正面部Face,front入口部 access洞门 portal 接头部junction 分岔部bifurcation 开口部 Opening window加宽部 enlargement避难洞Recess 筛子 围岩Surrounding rock 地质学 geology水文地质学hydrogeology 岩石力学Rock mechanics土力学Soil mechanics 地震活动Seismicity 钻孔或钻探 boring地质物理调查Geophysical investigation室内试验Laboratory test 现场试验In situ test事前调查Probing ahead地质勘探Geologic exploration围岩的性质 Nature of ground 硬岩 Hard rock完整岩石Sound rock风化岩 Weathered rock 破碎岩Fissured rock软弱围岩 Soft ground 塑性围岩Plastic ground流动围岩Running ground减压区Decompressed zone混合围岩Mixed ground卵石 boulder 夹层 seam层理 bedding 节理 Joint不透水围岩Impervious ground透水围岩Pervious ground蠕变 creep风化, 蚀变alteration 透水性 permeability地下水Ground water 湿度 moisture岩溶 karst断层fault围岩的物理力学性质Ground character密度density比重Specific gravity磨损度
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