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    T 毕业设计 (论文)外文资料翻译原 文 题 目: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT USING CAD-CAM-CAE SOFTWARE AND INTERNET FACILITIES 原 文 来 源: 国道数据库 March 1998c PTdesign 学 生 姓 名: 刘敏 学 号: 078105313 所在院(系) 部: 航空工程系 专 业 名 称: 机械设计制造及其自动化 HE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE CARPATHIAN EURO-REGION SPECIALISTS IN INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS6theditionPRODUCT DEVELOPMENT USING CAD-CAM-CAE SOFTWARE AND INTERNET FACILITIESConstantin ISPAS1, Miron ZAPCIU2, Cristina MOHORA3, Dorel ANANIA4,1, 2,3 Professor Eng. PhD. 4Assist. Eng.University “POLITEHNICA” of Bucharest Machine and Production Systems Department, Splaiul Independentei no.313, Bucharest, RO 060042 Romaniae-mail: ispas@leo.optimum.pub.ro, zapcium@sun.cfic.pub.ro, cristinamohora@yahoo.com, doresana@yahoo.com,Abstract: The main goals to the product development are to obtain a short time of design process, a low price and best performances of the final product. According to these goals, the product design must use some modules of advanced CAD-CAM-CAE software and the internet on-line 3D catalogs for some parts (more or less standard). The advantage obtained by using some modules from different CAD-CAM-CAE software is to use the most performant parts of these software (specific to the engineering fields) at a low price (it isn’t necessary all the software, only some specific modules). The internet 3D on-line catalogs offer the advantage to find very easy useful information about mechanical elements (prices, technical characteristics, 3D models, etc,).Key words: CAD-CAM-CAE software, internet on-line catalogues, on-line portal 3D catalogues, standard elements, integrated product design1.NTRODUCTIONNow, in the industry exists a high competition to produce new, better and cheaper products. The manufactures have to deal with the increasing demands of the customers. They have to improve continuously the conception methods of the products, to modernize the organization structure in order to create a fluent link, without limits, between studies, design, preparation, manufacturing, commercialization and working life of the products.To become more competitive into a world with diversity of products, with continuous changes, the companies must modernize and increase the flexibility of the production systems.The companies find out that the interactive design of a product is the most efficiently tool for analysis end evaluation. So the use of internet data base and CAD-CAM-CAE software creates visual data base and industrial geometry design. Process and product development using computers and internet environment allow a substantially costs and time economy.On the market there is a lot of CAD-CAM-CAE software which offer specific tools for engineering design into a tri dimensional virtual space.2.USING MULTIPLE CAD-CAM-CAE SOFTWARE PACKAGESThese kinds of software are representing a very useful tool in products development design process. By using them it can be created a 3D virtual product, simulate from many point of view [1], in order to improve its characteristics (technical or non technical).Some of these software’s have better performances for some engineering fields as aeronautics, automotives, mechanical etc. Today single CAD-CAM-CAE software cannot cover the entire industrial field for high performances. Another major disadvantage of that software’s is very high prices for a full version. Usual the prices are starting from several thousands of EUR.There are 3 advantages for the most CAD-CAM-CAE software’s: 1 - the software’s are structured in modules, even in the same area (for example: in CATIA in mechanical design are: part design; sheet metal design, mold design, wierframe and surfaces design etc);2 - it can be bought only some specific package regarding computer aided design, computer aided manufacturing or computer aided engineering; 3 - all these software allow to save date in some commune file format (for example: dxf for 2D drawings, step for 3D solids; iges for3D surfaces etc). These types of files can be opened by almost all CAD-CAM-CAE software in some specific conditionFig.1 Specific modules in the same domainsFig.2.Gear - dxf formatFig.3 Gear- Catia formatFig.4.Gear - step format Fig.5. Gear - iges formatFor a complex product (ex. in automotive industry) which need complex surfaces for modeling a single CAD-CAM-CAE software isn’t sufficient. In this case the solution is to use some high performant specific modules from different CAD-CAM-CAE software.3. USING INTERNET FACILITIES IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT.The growth of the Internet today offers the newest wave of communication through electronic mail, file transfer, telnet access, transaction applications, and much, much more.The most popular part of the Internet is the World Wide Web, where anyone can access hypertext pages with the click of a button. The popularity of the Internet has launched many social and ethical issues. Recently, the Internet has been criticized for its uncensored information, but has been praised for its educational value.In engineering field the internet is used for information dissemination and company advertising. Today all the big company offers many information about their products directly on the internet. In the mechanical engineering fields the most companies offer free catalogs about products (free documentation about technical characteristics, free 2D drawings and 3D models), prices, calculus technical software (ex: bearings SKF) etc.On the internet exists dedicated sites for all level of product development. Starting from standard catalogs for elementary parts fig.6 (screws, bearings, pulleys, belts, gears etc) and finished with complex products (like industrial robots – fig.7) the internet is a useful tool in design process for all kind of products.The disadvantage of the internet is the increasing diversity of information and the way of dissemination. The big problem is how to find utile information in this virtual space oninternet.Fig.6 Free 3D gears catalog on internet3.1 Finding useful 3D catalogs on internetToday on internet the information is structured into web pages. Almost all the companies in the world have web pages in order to offer more information about their products.There are 3 ways to search: 1 - to find a company into some specific engineering fields. If the name of company is known usually the site is www。(names ).com (ex: SKF has www.skf.com). If is not, an easy way is to use a searching site as google (www.google.com ) and as keywords the company name; 2 - to find some companies witch have similar products it is recommended to use searching site as google and keywords technical words witch describe the product. For example to find bearing companies it can be use: keywords like “bearings”; “ball bearings” etc.; 3 - to find some specific products (standard or not) for a specific engineering field it is recommended to use dedicated portals. A portal is a site which contains information and linkstospecificsitesforadomain.(ex.http://www.foreigntradeexchange.com/suppliers/bearings.html).On internet in the engineering fields the companies presents their products structured in catalogs. There are two types of catalogs on web.One is in well-known format PDF (portable document format). To find catalog of this type it is recommended for searching to use, after specific keywords, the acronym “PDF”. The advantage using a pdf catalogs is that all the needed information about a product is presented into single file, which can be printed.The other is interactive on-line catalogs which have some advantages like: 1- to find all information for a product (including in pdf format), 2- on-line calculus software, 3 -the product can be directly implemented into CAD-CAM-CAE software. To find such types of catalogs it is recommended to use keywords as “3D catalogs on-line” in combination with technical keyword. For example to find a gears catalog 3D on line it can be use for searching the next string: “gears 3D catalogs on-line”3.2 Using 3D component catalogsIn figure 9 is presented a screen capture for the results of 3D gears catalog search. With red arrow is marked possible internet address for 3D catalogs. In red rectangle is marked the address for interactive catalog presented in figure 10. In figure 10 is presented a portal for technical products which offers free 3D and 2D catalogs. As example it is presented a catalog wheal used in design of gear presented in figure 5. For selecting a wheal in this catalog it hasto specify all the necessary parameter: 1.Diametral Pitch; 2.No. Of Teeth; 3.Material; 4.HubStyle; 5.Quality Class; 6.Pressure Angle Degree; 7.Bore Size; 8.Face Width; 9.Pitch Dia;10.Hub Dia. ( N/a= Hubless).Fig.9 Finding interactive on-line catalog Fig.10. Interactive on-line catalog for gearsIn figure 11 is presented all the characteristics available in this catalog (https://sdp- si.com) for selected wheal as technical characteristics; prices; available file formats for direct implementation into CAD-CAM-CAE systems.Fig.11 Wheal characteristicsFor 3D model it was selected a step format (used for solid component). After implementation into CAD software a few minor modifications were made on the solid wheal according with the gears design requirements. It was made a key pocket and a circular pocket (for constructive reason). For a speed reducer only a few parts were designed as shells and spindles. In figure 14 with A are marked catalogs elements (wheals, screws, bearings, keys) With B are marked elements designed in Catia V5.a. b.Fig.13 The wheal : a. initial catalog wheal;b. modified whealFig.14. speed reducerCONCLUSIONBy using different modules from different CAD-CAM-CAE systems, based on software performances, the process design can be optimized from technical point of view without extra costs. Into a single CAD-CAM-CAE system some modules are better others no and the software price is high.By using online interactive catalogs the design process will be much simple. For all the elements used there are all the information technical and non-technical, so it can be easy made an estimative product cost (from point of view of elements).The major advantage of product development using CAD-CAM-CAE software and Internet facilities is the short time dedicated to design process. This is improved with approximately 70-80%.REFERENCES[1] Constantin Ispas, Miron Zapciu, Cristina Mohora, Dorel Anania, Researches regarding the integrated conception of the mechanical systems, The 1st International Conference on Computing and Solutions in Manufacturing Engineering CoSME ’04, Brasov, 2004[2] Ghionea, I., Anania, D. – „The management of the computer aided design using virtual prototype”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Manufacturing Systems ICMaS, , Editura Academiei Române, Bucharest 2002欧元的喀尔巴阡山区域工业系统中的专家国际会议第 6 版利用 CAD - CAM - CAE 软件及网络设施的产品开发康斯坦丁(1) ,米龙,克里斯蒂娜(3),多雷尔(4),(1),(2),(3)英文教授,博士学位。 (4)助手,工程师。POLITEHNICA 大学,布加勒斯特机器和生产系统部,Splaiul Independentei 313 号,布加勒斯特, ”罗马尼亚 RO 060042电子邮件:ispas@leo.optimum.pub.ro,zapcium@sun.cfic.pub.ro,cristinamohora@yahoo.com,doresana@yahoo.com,摘要:产品发展的主要目标是在一个短的时间的设计过程中,获得低价格的产品和最终产品的最佳表现。根据这些目标,产品设计必须使用一些先进的 CAD - CAM,CAE 软件模块和互联网的在线三维部分目录(或多或少标准目录) 。通过使用不同的 CAD - CAM,CAE 软件的一些模块得到的好处是可以用低价格(这是没有必要所有的软件,只有一些特定的模块,这些软件(具体到工程领域)获得最好表现的模块。三维互联网上的在线目录提供的优势是很容易找到有关机械元件的有用信息(如价格,技术特点,三维模型等) 。关键词:CAD - CAM 的 CAE 软件,互联网上的在线目录,在线 3D 目录连接,标准要素,集成产品设计绪论现在,业内的高度竞争促使产生新的,更好,更便宜的产品。汽车制造商已经处理了客户日益增长的需求。他们必须不断提高产品的构思方法,以现代化的组织结构,以创造一个流畅的链接,而没有研究,设计,制备,制造,商业化和工作产品的生命之间的限制。要成为一个更加具有国际竞争力公司,他须有产品的多样性与不断变化,该公司必须现代化,提高生产系统的灵活性。该公司发现,一种产品的交互设计是最有效的工具,用于分析评价结束。因此,互联网数据基础和的 CAD - CAM - CAE 软件的使用也带来视觉的几何数据基础和工业设计。工艺和产品开发使用计算机和网络环境可以获得大量成本和时间的节约。在市场上有许多的 CAD - CAM,CAE 软件为工程设计人员提供设计一个三维虚拟空间的很多具体的工具。二,运用多种 CAD - CAM 的 CAE 技术软件包这些类型的软件都代表一个非常有用的工具在产品开发设计过程中的作用。人们通过使用它可以创建一个三维虚拟产品,从模拟的角度分解成许多点,以改善其特性(非技术性的或技术性的) 。这些软件更好的应用于航空,汽车,机械等行业。今天单一的 CAD - CAM,CAE 软件在工程领域的表现有些不能涵盖整个工业的高场演出。这些软件的另一个主要缺点是一个完整版本的价格非常高。通常的价格是起价几千欧元。对于大多数的 CAD - CAM,CAE 软件有三个优势:1 - 软件的是结构化模块,即使在同一地区(例如:在 CATIA 机械设计中:部分设计;优势钣金设计,模具设计,管道设计和曲面设计等);2 – 我们可以只买一些具体的一揽子关于电脑辅助设计,计算机辅助制造,计算机辅助工程的部分; 3 - 所有这些软件均容许以节省许多公共文件格式 例如(date:二维的 drawings,三维固体一步的 dxf ,IGES 等) 。这些类型的文件可以打开几乎所有在某些特定条件下的 CAD - CAM,CAE 软件图 1 在同一领域的具体模块图 2 齿轮 -dxf 格式图 3 齿轮-gatia 格式图 4 齿轮-step 格式图 5 齿轮-iges 格式对于一个复杂的产品(例如:在汽车行业) ,其中需要许多复杂曲面造型。单一的 CAD - CAM,CAE 软件是不够的。在这种情况下,解决方法是使用不同的 CAD - CAM,CAE 软件中一些表现突出的具体模块。3。在产品开发中利用网络设施。如今互联网的发展提供了通过电子邮件传播最新的浪潮,文件传输,远程登录访问,交易应用,等等,等等。互联网的最流行的部分原是万维网,原因是在那里任何人都可以访问同一个按钮单击超文本网页。互联网的普及,推出了众多的社会和伦理问题。最近,互联网已经被批评为未经审查的信息,但其教育价值一直被人们所公认的称赞。在工程领域的互联网被用来传播信息和公司的广告。今天,所有的大公司都在互联网上提供了许多他们产品的信息。在机械工程领域的大多数公司也提供有关产品(许多有技术特点的免费文件,免费二维图纸和三维模型免费目录) ,价格,演算技术软件(例如:轴承斯凯孚等) 。在互联网上存在着许多拥有专用产品开发水平的网站。从图 6(螺丝,轴承,滑轮小学部分标准目录开始,皮带,齿轮等)和完成复杂的产品(如工业机器人 - 图 7)互联网是一个在设计过程中所有的同类产品的有用工具。互联网的缺点是不断增加的信息的多样性和传播途径。最大的问题是如何找到这个虚拟空间有用信息。在互联网上的免费的 3d 齿轮目录3.1 在互联网上查找有用的三维目录今天互联网上的信息的结构分为网页。几乎所有的公司都在世界上的网页,以提供更多有关其产品的信息。有三种方式搜索:1 - 寻找到一些具体的工程领域的公司。如果公司的名称,通常被称www.(company).com !(例如:SKF 有 www.skf.com) 。如果不是,一个简单的方法是使用搜索网站如谷歌(www.google.com 搜索网站)和关键字的公司名称; 2 - 找一些具有相似产品的公司他们会有相关公司的连接,还能使用关键字搜索网站谷歌和类似产品公司技术言语形容的产品。例如找到轴承公司可以使用:如“轴承”关键字, “球轴承”等; 3 - 寻找某些特定产品(标准或不)为特定的工程领域,建议使用专用的门户网站。门户网站是其中包含的信息,并为特定领域网站的链接。 (例如http://www.foreigntradeexchange.com/suppliers/bearings.html) 。对在工程领域的互联网公司在介绍他们的产品目录结构。有两种类型的网站目录。 一个是在著名的格式 PDF(便携式文档格式) 。为了找到这是推荐使用的搜索类型目录,经过特定的关键字,首字母缩写“PDF 格式”。它的优点是使用的 PDF 目录,所有有关的产品所需的资料,为单文件,它可以打印提交。另一种是交互式的在线目录有一些类似的优势:1 - 查找所有的产品(包括 PDF 格式的信息) ,2 - 在线演算软件,3,产品可直接到 CAD - CAM 的实施- CAE 软件。为了找到这种类型的目录,建议用“三维目录关键词在网上与关键字相结合的技术”。例如在网上找到一个齿轮目录三维它可用于搜索下一个字符串使用:“齿轮三维目录上线”3.2 使用三维零件目录在图 9 给出了一个三维齿轮目录搜索结果的屏幕捕获。用红色箭头标记为可能的三维互联网地址目录。在红色矩形标志着交互式目录地址图 10 介绍。在图 10 给出了它提供免费的 3D 和 2D 技术产品目录门户。由于它是提出了一个例子目录威尔在齿轮设计中使用的数字 5 所列。选择在这个目录有一个威尔指定所有必要的参数:1.直径; 2.齿数; 3.Material; 4.齿形风格; 5 质量等级 6.压力角度; 7.孔尺寸; 8.齿宽; 9.齿间距;10.轮毂直径。 (N/A=无轮毂) 。
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