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知识员工定义_特征及分类研究述评_廖建桥.pdf

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知识 员工 定义 特征 分类 研究 述评 廖建桥
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© Môýçl、+˜#s Ëùî  ß廖建桥 文 鹏(华中科技大学管理学院)K1: 尽管知识员工这个概念在半个世纪以前就被提出,但至今人们仍对其内涵缺乏清晰和统一的认识。通过文献梳理发现,研究者主要从工作内容、工作方式、工作性质和员工特征 4个视角来定义知识员工;频次统计分析表明,研究者认可度较高的知识员工特征包括自主性、受教育程度高等 8种;大致存在 3类知识员工分类标准,分别是知识员工(或人力资本)的战略特征、知识工作的性质和职业类型。借鉴已有研究成果,尝试性地提出了一个新的知识员工定义,并对知识员工特征及分类作了简要评价。1oM:© Môý;çl;+˜;s ËÏms Ë|: F270 ÓDS M ’: A ÓcI|: 1672-884X(2009)02-0277-07Review of the Study on Definition, Characters and Classification of Knowledge WorkerLIAO Jianqiao W EN Peng( Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China)Abstract: Although the concept of Knowledge Worker was brought forward half a century ago, aclear picture about the profound connotations has been not given yet. The definitions of knowledgeworker were reviewed from four prospects, namely work content, manner, nature and individualcharacter. Frequency statistic analysis indicates that the eight characteristics, including autonomous,well educated etc are highly recognized by researchers. Thus, classify knowledge workers was classi-fied into three sorts of criterions according to their strategic character, knowledge work nature and ca-reer type. New definition of knowledge worker is given. Its character and classification were also ap-praised briefly.Key words: knowledge worker; definition; character; classificationlà ° ù: 2007-04-01Á[ “:SE1 – SÐÁ'ù[ “( 70572036)Û“© MÜ6 H}¥ž Ÿ,© MXî¹Ü6?Z¥ö1g Æ1 ÍÐ zî ï 。T¹© M8¥© Môýï„ |} .d¥ ¸î ï7î¹ò ËF®Ï¥‚ôý。¾ •8¥Cö²、Ü6„ŸÍûÁ 3  ' Y¥•Y[1]。k¿© Môý¥+ yŸÐ×1Ÿ,S =“v Ѐ[2~ 5]© Môý¥ =d、+˜#5 ØT  ' Æ¥ùîÐ)。 –7,®¿ù?Ä‚],À ¦ Ì ¯íE© MôýÀ Q¥ =d™î b „dB¥ ª M,µ¥Ð€¾À Q¥ ªMV¿.º[6],7µ¥ »iWÄ¥ `_[7,8 ]。ƒÕ ª M ¥‚BÁ P¤Ð€ ÌíE ’)© MôýÐd© Môý¥'É uY,‚ æ¿©Môý Ø ‚¥ÉB„?Z,9ó© Môý5 ØLl{ Ÿíp¸。k¿N,'Ó ES =“Ѐ© Môý =d¥ ª MÍ[œ Ø、sÐ ßN,[ ùáS| Ÿ¥© Môý Ø ‚ùîÐ5Ø Llµ î¸m。“ çl­“,+˜Ðs Ë ^ÉB„ ü ’©MôýÀ Q¥×1€ ,9 ^ ¦ Ì© MôýÀQ ª M¥²T,yN,'Óö1Vçl、+˜„sË3ñZ ëí$ ¦ Ì© Môý¥ ª M,iN$ É› ß ,KªZ¬à Ÿ¥ùî。1 知识员工定义“© Môý”BMK*® ÅS5 Øv =DRUCKER¿1959 M《 ü?¥ Úñ:1¿¥ªC} W¸¥á》Ï ü ’4[9];­ª,·277·»6 »2 ù2009 M2 5 Ø Ð Chinese Journal of Management Vol. 6 No. 2Feb. 2009 DAV ENPORT©[4]、DOV E[10 ]、VOGT[11]©ZЀ© Môý¥r、 ã©Z ëÉ› ùî。áSM1¥ùî S¿20 W@90 M} ,º S“ÓD¥$ ,áSЀ© MôýÉ› v ¥ Ø ‚ùîÐ L£ùî[5, 12,13]。 L= , Ù –© Môý ^Bñ“„É”¥ M,ŒáS“*üµÐ­M‹¥ ŒÔëÌ。 è Â,*2000 M - Ô0ü4“ ¸€Í ¦, ¸ï€Í¿ ¦”¥4Ä。N“í “© Ms0”、“ 7ï ¸î€”© M9;S =,F®¥?Z| üAhÏ .ÀTÌ,7O V[ \ç¥ ^,© Môý|“vñ  %ç21 W@ 't r。 è Â, “ -vН =¥ I‚ü ^Bñ“l¥Ù5,¸vÐ Àµ I nvН =¥ýT+˜r+˜,Ü <îÿ¥Üd© Môý5 Øîÿ¥ÜvìV Ÿ,Á 3 ¸Ù5。á Ì ÄBñV Y© Môý5 Øùî¥ ¦û ë ““ †¥G^。• IÓD[1]rÓo+T H, ô Z Ó XL.© M:ý  <¥©M5 Ø[M ].¦€,r. 2Ä:~âñ,1999: 5~ 17.[ 2] DRUCKER P F. Knowledge-worker Productivity:The Biggest Challenge [ J]. California ManagementReview, 1999,41( 2): 79~ 94.[ 3]Œ Ë1F.5 Ø© Môý[M ].¢k ü,©,r.Ø:·282·5 Øл6 »2 ù2009 M2€ý<ñ,2000: 5~ 15.[4] DAVENPORT T H, ROBERT J T, SUSAN C. TheMysterious Art and Science of Knowledge-workerPerformance[ J]. Sloan Management Review,2002, 44(1): 23~ 30.[5]­,Z é Œ, 1Óî.1¿© MýT€Ð© MŸýT¥ L£³[J]. SÐÐùî,2004( 4): 190~ 196.[ 6] LARSON E B. Physicians Should Be Civic Profes-sionals, Not Just Knowledge Worker [ J]. AmericanJournal of Medicine,2007, 120( 11): 1 005~ 1 009.[7] CO LLINS D. Knowledge Work or Working Knowl-edge? Ambiguity and Confusion in the Analysis of the“ Knowledge Age” [ J]. Employee Relations, 1997, 19(1): 38~ 44.[8] NOM IKOS G E. Managing Knowledge Worker forProductivity[ J]. National Productivity Review, 1989,8( 2): 165~ 174.[ 9] DRUCKER P F. The Age of Social Transformation[J]. The Atlantic Monthly, 1994,274( 5): 53~ 80.[10] DOV E R. The Knowledge Worker [ J]. AutomotiveManufacturing É, y B.r+˜_¥© Môý I ßZE¥ ± I[J]. <Ü6Ð5 Ø,2006( 3): 21~ 27.[32]f µñ, y B.© M˜ ¸î ß ˜#µrŸùî:ýT© ¥ j˜[ J].ùîÐ?Z5 Ø, 2005,17(5): 43~ 50.[33] BECKSTEAD D, BALDW IN T. Dimensions of Oc-cupational Changes in Canada 's Knowledge Econo-my, 1971-1996 [ R ]. The Canadian Economy inTransition Research Paper Series 11-622-MIE No.004. Analytical Studies Branch. Ottawa: StatisticsCanada,2003.[ 34 ] HOWITT P. On Some Problems in MeasuringKnowledge-Based Growth. In The Implications ofKnowledge-Based Growth for Micro-EconomicPolicies [M ]. Calgary: University of Calgary Press,2002.[35]5 ,u †Ñ.ڍ/ Œ <© M˜ôýîɳ pÐ ãÅ !9ùî[J]. SÐÐÐ SÐ/ Œ5 Ø,2006( 4): 122~ 126.[36]^ 1‚,ëß/.¿© MýT¥© Môýùîs[J].ùîÐ?Z5 Ø,2007, 19(4): 81~ 87.(I f;é)YßT€:廖建桥(1957~ ) , 3,µ< £ ¦。¿Ï S/vÐ(óq g430074)5 ØÐý q、p Vùî 3 =。ùîZ_¹ ¦ ï'÷5 Ø、 ¦ ËýrÐ。E-mail: jimliao@ mail.hust. edu. cn·283·© Môýçl、+˜#s Ëùî  ß—— y B Ó µ
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