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城市景观设计中的生态规划外文文献翻译.doc

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大 连 理 工 大 学 本 科 外 文 翻 译城市景观设计中的生态规划Ecological planning in the urban landscape design学 部(院): 建筑与艺术学院 专 业:艺术设计(环境艺术设计)学 生 姓 名: 李国良 学 号: 201257006 指 导 教 师: 林墨飞 完 成 日 期: 2016.4.1 大连理工大学Dalian University of Technology城市景观设计中的生态规划城市景观设计中的生态规划Ecological planning in the urban landscape designAbstract: This article discusses the urban landscape from the relation of the following three concepts: the landscape, the city and the ecology. This paper mainly discusses how the landscape influences the city's living environment.The landscape is a stigma in the land, which is of the relationship between human and human, between man and nature. There exists some subtle relationship among landscape, city and humanized design. key word:Urban landscape、Living environment 、HumanizationI. City and The Landscape(1) Overview of Landscape DesignLandscape design, first, is a people's thinking activity, performed as an art activity.Diversified thoughts formed complex diverse landscape art style. Contemporary landscape design apparently see is the diversity of the landscape forms,in fact its essence is to keep the closing up to the natural order system, reflected the more respect for human beings, more in-depth perspective of the nature of human's reality and need, not to try to conquer the nature.it is not even imitating natural, but produce a sense of belonging. Landscape is not only a phenomenon but the human visual scene. So the earliest landscape implications is actually city scene. Landscape design and creation is actually to build the city.(2) The Relationship Between Landscape and UrbanCity is a product of human social, economic and cultural development, and the most complex type. It is vulnerable to the artificial and natural environmental conditions of interference. In recent decades, with worldwide the acceleration of urbanization, the urban population intensive, heavy traffic, resource shortage, environment pollution and ecology deterioration has become the focus of attention of the human society. In the current environment condition in our country, the problem is very serious. and in some urban areas, the pollution has quite serious, and greatly influenced and restricts the sustainable development of the city.Landscape is the relationship between man and man, man and nature. This is, in fact, a kind of human living process. Living process is actually with the powers of nature and the interaction process, in order to obtain harmonious process. The landscape is the result of human life in order to survive and to adapt the natural. At the same time, the living process is also a process of establishning harmonious coexistence. Therefore, as a colony landscape, it is a stigma of the relationship between man and nature.II the city landscape planning and design(1) city landscape elementsThe urban landscape elements include natural landscape and artificial landscape. 城市景观设计中的生态规划Among them, the natural landscape is mainly refers to the natural scenery, such as size hills, ancient and famous trees, stone, rivers, lakes, oceans, etc. Artificial landscape are the main cultural relics, cultural site, the botanical garden afforestation, art sketch, trade fairs, build structure, square, etc. These landscape elements must offer a lot of examples for creating high quality of the urban space environment. But for a unique urban landscape, you must put all sorts of landscape elements in the system organization,and create an orderly space form.(2)the urban landscape in the planningThe city is an organic whole, which is composed with material, economy, culture, and society.To improve the urban environment is a common voice.The key of the urban landscape design is to strengthen urban design ideas, strengthen urban design work. and blend urban design thought into the stages of urban planning. The overall urban planning in the city landscape planning is not to abandon the traditional garden, green space planning, but the extension and development of it.Both are no conflict, but also cannot be equal.In landscape planningof city planning, we should first analysis the urban landscape resources structure, fully exploit landscape elements which can reflect the characteristics of urban.Consider carefully for the formation of the system of urban landscape.III ecological planning and urban landscape (1) the relationship of urban landscape and ecological planning Landscape ecology is a newly emerged cross discipline, the main research space pattern and ecological processes of interaction, its theme is the fork the geography and ecology. It's with the whole landscape as the object, through the material flow, energy flow and information flowing the surface of the earth and value in transmission and exchange, through the biological and the biological and the interaction between human and transformation, the ecological system principle and system research methods of landscape structure and function.the dynamic change of landscape has interaction mechanism, the research of the landscape pattern, optimizing the structure, beautify the reasonable use and the protection, have very strong practicability. Urban ecological system is a natural, economic and social composite artificial ecosystem, it including life system, environment system, with a complex multi-level structure, can be in different approaches of human activity and the mutual relationship between the city and influence. Urban environment planning guidance and coordination as a macro department interests, optimizing the allocation of land resources city, reasonable urban space environment organization the important strategic deployment, must have ecological concept. Only to have the ecological view, to guide the construction of the city in the future to ecological city goal, to establish the harmonious living environment. In recent years, landscape planning in urban landscape features protection and urban environment design is wide used.(2) landscape in the living environment of ecological effectLandscape as a unit of land by different inlaid with obvious visual characteristics of the geographic entities, with the economic, ecological and aesthetic value, the multiple value judgment is landscape planning and management foundation. Landscape planning and design always is to create a pleasant landscape as the center. 城市景观设计中的生态规划The appropriate human nature can understand the landscape for more suitable for human survival, reflect ecological civilization living environment, including landscape, building economy, prudent sex ecological stability, environmental cleanliness, space crowded index, landscape beautiful degree of content, the current many places for residential area of green, static, beauty, Ann's requirement is the popular expression. Landscape also paid special attention to the spatial relationship landscape elements, such as shape and size,density and capacity, links, and partition, location and of sequence, as their content of material and natural resources as important as quality. As the urban landscape planning should pay attention to arrange the city space pattern, the relative concentration of the open space, the construction space to density alternate with; In artificial environment appeared to nature; Increase the visual landscape diversity; Protect the environment MinGanOu and to promote green space system construction.(3) the urban landscape and ecological planning and design of the fusion of each other.The city landscape and ecological planning design reflects human a new dream, it is accompanied by industrialization and after the arrival of the era of industrial and increasingly clear. Natural and cultural, design of the environment and life environment, beautiful form and ecological functions of real comprehensive fusion, the landscape is no longer a single city of specific land, but let the ablation, to thousands; It will let nature participate in design; Let the natural process with every one according to daily life; Let people to perception, experience and care the natural process and natural design.(4) the city landscape ecological planning the humanized design1. “it is with the person this“ design thought Contemporary landscape in meet purpose at the same time, more in-depth perspective on human of the nature of reality and needs. First performance for civilian design direction, application of natural organic materials and elastic curve form rich human life space. Next is the barrier-free design, namely no obstacle, not dangerous thing, no manipulation of the barrier design. Now there have been the elderly, the disabled, from the perspective of the social tendency, barrier-free design ideas began to gain popularity, at the same time for disadvantaged people to carry on the design also is human nature design to overall depth direction development trend. “It is with the person this“ the service thoughts still behave in special attention to plant of bright color, smell good plant, pay attention to ZuoJu texture and the intensity of the light. The detail processing of considerate more expression of the concern, such as the only step to shop often caused visual ignored and cause staggered, in order to avoid this kind of circumstance happening, contemporary landscape sites do not be allowed under 3 steps; And as some residential area and square in the bush set mop pool, convenient the district's hygiene and wastewater recycling water. “It is with the person this“ the service thoughts in many ways showed, the measure of the standard is human love.1. 1 human landscape design concept is human landscape design is to point to in landscape design activity, pay attention to human needs, in view of the user to the environment of the landscape of a need to spread design, which satisfied the user “physiological and psychological, physical and mental“ multi-level needs, embodies 城市景观设计中的生态规划the “people-oriented“ design thought. Urban public space human landscape design, from the following four aspects to understand:1. 1.1 physical level of care. Human landscape design with functional and the rationality of design into premise condition, pay attention to the physical space reasonable layout and effective use of the function. Public space design should not only make people's psychology and physiology feel comfortable, still should configuration of facilities to meet people's complex activities demand1. The level of caring heart 1.2 Daniel. In construction material form of the space at the same time, the positive psychology advocate for users with the attention that emotion, and then make the person place to form the security, field feeling and belonging.1. 1.3 club will level of care. Emphasizes the concern of human survival environment, the design in the area under the background of urban ecological overall planning and design, to make the resources, energy rationally and effectively using, to achieve the natural, social and economic benefits of the unity of the three.1. 1.4 to a crowd of segmentation close care. Advocate barrier-free design, and try to meet the needs of different people use, and to ensure that the group of mutual influence between activities, let children, old people, disabled people can enjoy outdoor public the fun of life.1. 2 and human landscape design related environmental behavior knowledge the environment behavior is human landscape design, the main research field, pay attention to the environment and people's explicit behavior and the relationship between the interaction, tried to use the psychology of the some basic theory, methods researchers in the city and architecture in activities and to the environment of the response, and the feedback the information can be used to guide the environment construction and renovation. Western psychologist dirk DE Joan to put forward the boundary effect theory. He points out that the edge of space is people like to stay area, also is the space of the growth of the activity area [3]. Like the urban space, the margin of the wood, down the street, and the rain at the awning, awnings, corridor construction sunken place, is people like the place to stay. At the edge of space, and other people or organizations to distance themselves are is better able to observe the space of the eyes and not to be disturbed. “Man seeth“ is the person's nature. A large public space are existing “the man seeth“ phenomenon: the viewer consciously or unconsciously observation, in the space in front of the all activities. At the same time, some of the people with strong performance desire, in public space in various activities to attract the attention of others, so as to achieve self-fulfillment cheerful. The seemingly simple “man seeth“ phenomenon, but can promote space more activities production. For example, for a walk of pedestrians may be busy street performance and to join the ranks of the show attracts, with the strange because the audience is the sight of the activities of the wonderful and short conversation, art lovers of the infection by environmental atmosphere began to sketch activities. Environmental design, according to environmental behavior related knowledge, actively create boundary space provide people stay, rest, the place of talking to facilitate more space城市景观设计中的生态规划The Landscape Urbanism exhibition contained an international survey of public urban spaces by designers including Adriaan Geuze/West 8, Michael Van Valkenburgh, Patrick Schumacher, Alex Wall, and several Barcelona landscape architects (such as Enric Batlle and Joan Roig, who completed Trinitat Cloverleaf Park in a highway intersection for the 1992 Olympics). American exhibitors included Corner and Mathur, Waldheim’s teachers from Penn, Mapillero/ Pollack from New York, Conway-Schulte of Atlanta Olympics fame, and Jason Young/Omar Perez/Georgia Daskalakis/Das: 20 from Detroit. Corner’s premiated but sadly unbuilt Greenport Harborfront, Long Island Project (1997), stood out in this show. His office, Field Operations, proposed creating a sense of urban activity around the annual raising and lower-ing of the town’s ancient sailing ship Stella Maris up and down a newly created slip, with a historic, children’s carousel housed in an adjacent band shell. Corner envisioned this staged, biannual event as an attractor for peo-ple, the press, and media, who would flock to the town in its off season, inhabiting the newly created commons on the harbor front to watch the ship’s spectacular movements. In the winter, the ship would become a monumental, sculptural presence lit at night in the center of the small port’s commons; in the summer it would return to its accustomed quayside, where its masts would tower above the rooftops. 21Corner’s project in the Landscape Urbanism exhibition illustrates his concept of a “performative” urbanism based on preparing the setting for programmed and unprogrammed activi-ties on
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