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塑造精神环境和可持续发展的用现代城市定居点设计中的应用.rar

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    塑造 精神 环境 可持续发展 现代 城市 定居点 设计 中的 应用
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    广西科技大学毕业设计(论文)外文翻译课题名称 南方某创意产业园区创意聚落概念设计学 院 土木建筑工程学院专 业 建筑学 班 级 建筑 092 学 号 200900503040 姓 名 李晓冬 指导教师 黄维拥、谭韵 2014 年 2 月 27 日原文:Shaping of the Spiritual Environment and Sustainable Development in the Designof Modern Urban SettlementsHaifeng ChuAbstractIn recent years , with the rapid urban development and expansion, a large number of residential quarters have emerged out. But the designs of these settlements are following the same pattern, with the disadvantages of lacking of resistance and environmental characteristics. This paper analyzes the relationship between the construction of settlements in the design and the context, stresses the importance of shaping the spiritual environment in the settlements and its possible solutions, and proposes the introduction of the concept of sustainable development in designing the settlements and the trend of modern settlements .Keywords:Settlements,context, exchange space, sustainableDevelopment.1.IntroductionResidence is the first building in human-beings’ history.human-beings’ residence has experienced a long process ,from living in nests and caves to living on the ground ,then from living sporadically to living together,and finally today's cities of our residential areas have shaped.In the first large division of human labor, due the emergenceof agriculture, human did not have to move or live by water for the food , which formed the fixed settlement – called village[1]. Actually the form of settlement is the rudiment of urban residential areas. As an important part of the city,residential areas develops with the pace of the development ofthe city, at the same time, is most directly affected by the territorial environment, cultural background, people's living habits and other factors, because of which the residential areas have presented various forms, such as alley, neighborhood and so on.Most of people’s life is spent in inside homes and settlements. Therefore, the environmental quality of housing and settlements have a direct impact on people's living environment . How to design a better and more applicable residential districts , is the goal that the architects and planners are exploring all the time .2. The Shaping of the “Context” and theSpiritual Environment in the ModernResidential DesignIn the field of architectural design, the number of settlements designing is very large. However, many projects appear in the same pattern, lacking of characteristic features.Besides, they don’t do deeply analysis and research, just to meet the basic number for living and the requirements of function but neglecting the shaping of the spiritual environment for settlements. As the quality of people's lives are improving , people pay more attention to the to social environment of settlements and the cultural environment of construction , but not the extent of the residential area.2.1 The Introduction of the “Context“ in the SettlementsDesigningThe term Context, started in the area of linguistics initially. It is a historical category, which began in a specific space, the extent origins from the context contains an extremely wide range of content. The term context can be explained narrowly “a cultural thread “. As the Americananthropologist Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kalakohen pointed out: “Culture includes explicit or implicit patterns of behavior, is learned or taught by the using of symbols, and constitutes human groups’ outstanding achievements. The core of culture, includes the traditional concept of historic derivatives and options, particularly the values; although the cultural system can be considered as a product of human activity, it can be seen as further restrictive factor on the activities of the human.“ As early as the period of ancient Greece people had the awareness on the topic of context, but the real idea of context’s formally being proposed was after the 60's of 20th century. And until after the 80's it has become a large main school in the modern building. Modern architecture and urban planning excessively emphasis on the function of the object,rather than pay attention to the association between the form and context of the object and lack of understanding of the urban context, which finally leading to the evolution of modern architecture into a form of “international style“ square box. Postmodernism planners and architects propose their dissatisfaction with the same style of modern architecture and town planning. After reflection, they try to restore the originalorder and the spirit in the city and reconstruct the lost structure and culture of the city. As an integral part of the city, settlements design also has experienced the same In order to go out of the trend consistent design, settlements design must find their own roots and characteristics from the national and regional culture. However, postmodernist design excessively emphasis on designing the form of the objects itself, hoping each building designed by them will become a symbol of the city,but neglecting the relationship between the design objects and the cities. Here the “context“ refers to cultural traditions and context with ethnic characteristics and geographical characteristics. China is a nation owning multi-ethnic, multi-regional culture, whose housing are in various forms, such as: courtyard, Diaojiaolou, towers and so on. Thesearchitectural forms are specific to local, regional culture containing a great feature of the local architectural forms.Through the capture, transformation, transplantation, we can use the architectural forms abound in regional color in the design of settlements, for the purpose of realizing the unity between the cultural environment and the local cultural environment of the settlements, but not incompatible with anindependent existence. Thus, not only the design of settlements can be integrated into the unique thread of the entire city, but also the settlements will have a unique cultural taste and cultural environment[2].Of course, what have to be pointed out is that the design form of the settlements cannot stop at the original form of the structure inherent itself. As the architects and planners, they need to make the design elements abstract, refine them , and then apply them. The national and regional culture is not static, and they also move forward with the development progress of the times. Therefore, the design concept and waysof the settlements should also change and renewal following the pace of cultural development.2.2 The Introduction of “the Exchange of Space“ in theDesign of SettlementsWith the improvement of the quality of life, the requirement of settlements is increasing correspondingly. People not only want their needs of the indoor living space to be met, but also propose the requirements for spirit.Nevertheless , the speeding up tempo of the community in the reality and the accelerating industrialization of the city, result in the disappearance of the original traditional and warmneighborhood relationships. The neighbors living upstairs and downstairs just nodded their heads up and down to each other, even those who have lived with each other for a few years may not know each other. The relationship as the saying that “nearby neighbors are dearer than distant relatives“ in the residents has no longer existed. In the settlements, people are lack of communication, care and warmth, and they are notable to feel it a “home“.In the design of settlements, architects should pay attention to the requirements of spirit of the resident settlements and then provide “the exchange of space.“Exchange space“ could be established separately, such as opening up a separate site when designing a green space in settlements planning, so that the residents of settlements can gather here for conversations. “Exchange space“ can also be combined with the architectural design, such as to put some seats in the bottom overhead layer of the residential, so that the households in the same building can sit down and talk with each other when they meet while walking after dinner,which will enhance the neighborhood feelings. Only can theresidents have the feeling of home when they return to their settlements. Just basing on the emergence exchange among the residents of settlements, the community culture can have the congenital condition for the formation. Indeed to meet the demand for the users themselves in the design, is aspeople-centered design that we often say. Financially,although the set up of “the exchange of space“ will cause the reduce of the area available for sale of the developers, the cultural tastes of the settlements will be greatly improved,which will attract more residents. For developers, the expansion of the demand of settlements will also cause in theincreasing of the price per unit area. As a whole, the emergence and the establishment of “the exchange of space“of settlements will increase the value of the whole.3. The Design Principles of SustainableDevelopment in the Design of SettlementsGlobal statistics show that the construction industry has a major proportion of possession in the energy consumption,environmental pollution, climate change and depletion of non-renewable resources. Since the settlement is an importantpart of the city, the number of residential buildings in the city occupied a very large proportion, and the environmental quality of settlements, has a direct impact on the quality of urban environmental quality. Introducing the concept of sustainable development into the design of settlements will improve the urban environment while reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution of the cities.3.1 The Proposal of the Concept of Sustainable DevelopmentThe term “Sustainable development“ first appeared in the international documents “World Conservation outline“ in 1980 drew up by IUCN, the concept of which was originally derived from ecology, referring to a resource management strategy. It was widely used in areas of economics and sociology, added some new content. In “Our Common Future“ report, “sustainable development“ is defined as “not only to meet the needs of contemporary people without endangering the development of meeting future generations’needs“, which is a dynamics and integrated concept referringto economy, society, culture, technology and natural environment. The concept has made the view clear in theory that developing economy and protecting the environment and resources are interrelated, as both cause and effect point of each other. Now the widely used definition of “sustainable development“ around the world is that “a model of development to meet the needs of people’s present needs without threatening to the future development of mankind“[3].3.2 The Perspective of Sustainable Development in theArchitectural DesignIn 1955, Building the European Commission pointed out that “the architecture has a big impact on the natural environment, built environment, the quality of human life,natural resources and cultural characteristics of our society.2133This requires an architect to possess the corresponding abilityto meet the social, ecological, technological, and economicrequirements. “In order to achieve the sustainable development of construction, architects have made a lot of exploration andchange in architectural design theory and practice. In 2003 the SIG (the Sustainability of the Built Environment Research Group of United Kingdom Education Center) in their annualreport recommended that:a) Establishing the overall and systemic design ideab) .Understanding the indissoluble links between the environment, technology, society, culture, economy and belief with the designc) Establishing the cooperation of the interdisciplinary designs and strengthening the users’ and community residents’ participates in the designd) Recognizing and fulfilling our responsibility for humanity and the earth, including some not listed in the lawe) Critically inspecting the view that will impact the values of the design decisions, and questioning a number of ethical issues, such as what the social standards,ecological standards and environmental standards arethat should be respected by the building andenvironment designers and decision makers[4]3.3 The Settlements Design of the Sustainable DevelopmentIn the design, construction and use of the settlements, it is necessary for truly achieving sustainable development, to consider the issue from a number of levels.a) From a social perspective, there are differences and complexity among people's behavior factors, cultural background and religious belief. In the design of settlements, the architect must respect some social factors such as local cultural traditions, religious beliefs, habits and behavior and incorporate them into the design. They should maintain the local community culture in the original settlements, and introduce it into anew community environment, realizing the sustainable development in the context of the local community.b) From an ecological perspective, the settlements design of the sustainable development should take into the followings account:1) Reducing environmental pollution and the pressureon the environment . Methods: using of water-saving sanitary equipment; Using the rain water and surface water in that area; using prefabricated units and reducing construction waste; Improving waste separation processing, using and recycling.2) Through intensive using of space and increasing the life span of the construction and recycling, the consumption of natural resources can be dealt with, as well as using of renewable materials can reduce consumption of natural resources. The methods for reducing consumption of natural resources:Heightening the heat-insulating property of the insulation jacket of the construction; using the natural light; achieving thermal equilibrium through natural ventilation; creating space for easyconversion function.3) Using reliable and non-toxic building materials,paying attention to maintaining good ventilation and sunlight effects and enhancing the health of the residents in settlements.4) According to the local natural environment of the settlements, cultivating local plants, while creating sustainable biodiversity and ecosystems.c) In order to lower energy consumption, settlements design of the sustainable development should be taken the followings into account:1) Facilitating the public transports, and reducing the energy consumption for the trip of residents of settlements2) Strengthening the use of solar energy in the settlements, and improving self-sufficiency rate of energy in the settlements[5]d) The design of sustainable development settlements should take into the convenience and comfort of the settlements residents’ life account, as well as providing good public service facilities. According to localresidents’ living habits and the characteristics of their activities, taking reasonable management se
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