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室内设计在增强现实环境.rar

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    室内设计 增强 现实 环境
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    室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–1–大 连 理 工 大 学 本 科 外 文 翻 译室内设计在增强现实环境Interior Design in Augmented Reality Environment学 部(院): 建筑与艺术学院 专 业:艺术设计(环境艺术设计)学 生 姓 名: 栾娈 学 号: 201257025 指 导 教 师: 都伟 完 成 日 期: 2016.3.24 大连理工大学室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–2–Dalian University of TechnologyInterior Design in Augmented Reality EnvironmentViet Toan PhanDepartment of Industrial ConstructionHaNoi University of Science Technology, VietNamSeung Yeon ChooSchool of Architecture K. Hirokazu, et al. The related devices typically include data glasses connected to a portable PC (Head-mounted display- HMD). Plus, various 室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–3–lightweight solutions using a PDA device has been proposed by the Augmented Reality Team in Findland (S. Sitanen and C. Woodward, 2003). However, these devices are right not commonly available for non-professional users.Accordingly, this paper presents an augmented reality system for designing/educating/presenting interior design projects using overlaid virtual furniture in a physical environment based on a regular PC home system. Tracking markers are placed on the floors or walls to define the scale and coordinate system of the room. Next, the user selects virtual furniture on the screen and places it in the design space. In the AR scene, the 3D virtual furniture is integrated into a real environment and can be arranged along side real furniture. Experiments are implemented using basic home computer equipment, including a PC, HMD (or web camera), and printer. As a result, it is hoped that the proposed system will allow a broad range of users.While some similar systems have already been presented by another research group, the system proposed in this paper includes additional functions for the user interface and an improved implementation. For example, the user can interact with virtual furniture using a Tangible Augmented Reality in real time, and change the color, style, or covering of furniture in a real environment. Therefore, this allows complex and varied designs to be explored and visualized, making AR technology for interior design accessible to both professionals and amateurs.2.AUGMENTED REALITY- NEW RESEARCH APPROACH FOR ARCHITECTURE2.1 Augmented Reality technologyAugmented Reality (AR) is a new technology that involves the overlay of computer graphics on the real world. As a result, the user can see the real world augmented with virtual objects and can interact with them. Within a more general context, AR is also termed Mixed Reality (MR), referring to a multi-axis spectrum of areas that cover Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), telepresence, and other related technology [1] (Figure 1).Figure 1. Paul Milgram’s Reality- Virtual continuum.Augmented Reality systems combine digital information and the real world in a way that the user experiences them as one. A particularly important property of AR is locating virtual objects in the right place and position, which makes the Tracking System one of the most important components of an AR system. Essentially, an AR system must be able to follow the 室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–4–user’s point of view dynamically and keep virtual objects aligned with real world objects. The basic components of an AR system are a display, camera for graphic captures, and computer installed application software, plus various different kinds of hardware can International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 5– No.5, August 2010 be used, for example, camera phones, PDAs, lap-tops, HMDs, and wearable computer systems.Typically, an ARToolKit library is used to determine the relation between the real and virtual world. The ARToolKit uses a computer vision technique to define the position and orientation of the real camera viewpoint relative to a real world marker. Next, the ARToolKit defines and calculates the position of the virtual coordinates. Based on a concurrence of virtual and real camera coordinates, the computer graphics are then drawn as an overlay on a fiducial markers card. As a result, the user experiences a video see-through augmented reality on the PC screen or more lively impression by HMDs (Kato, H.2001 and HIT Lab Washington University).Although Augmented Reality has only been studied for one decade, the growth and progress in the past few years have been remarkable. As such, AR technology has many possible applications across a wide range of fields, including entertainment, education, medicine, military training, engineering, and manufacturing [2](Figure 2; 3). Figure 2. AR application in entertainment and medical fields.室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–5–Figure 3. AR application in military and manufacture engineering fields.It is also expected that other potential areas for application will still appear with the dissemination of this technology. During the early stages, the main focus of AR development was related to hardware technology rather than usability. However, the rapid development of mobile (handheld) with better processing capacities and long-lasting batteries has raised the issue of lightweight mobile AR systems. Thus, mobile AR devices are now one of the most promising emerging technologies. Similarly, the proposed system was also designed to appeal to a broader range of users based on the use of a regular PC and HMD.2.2 Augmented Reality in architecture fieldRecently, AR technology is also being considered as a new design approach for architecture. As a result, a lot of AR experiments and research have been directed toward the architectural design process. For example, Figure 4 Left shows a full-size 3D virtual house in a real life environment, where the handheld AR device allows the user to walk around and through it [3](Augmented Team- Finland 2003). Meanwhile, Figure 4- Right shows another implementation of AR in archaeology and touring guide, where the user is shown the virtual heritage buildings raised up from ruins on historical site.Figure 4. Left: Virtual building in PDA. Right: Virtual Hera temple in historical.室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–6–In the case of architecture, the above applications can be effective for both designing and teaching. However, a growing number of new applications of AR technology are expected in the field of architecture.3. INTERIOR DESIGN IN DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT3.1 Properties of interior designIn the case of interior design, the designer essentially applies the three basic principles of interior design: color, scale, and proportion within a predetermined space. Thus, the proposed AR system is focused on giving the user the flexibility to design using these three basic principles. Therefore, in the proposed AR environment, the user is able to adjust the properties of virtual furniture and create different arrangements in a real environment.3.2 System designFor implementation, two separate modules were developed: one for creating and managing the 3D database, and the other for displaying, as show in below figure (Figure 5).First, CAD applications extract information from a drawing andlink it to a database. For the given space, geometrical information is then extracted from a three-dimensional database of furniture. After loading the geometries, the position and direction of the views for the user are calculated based on data marker tracking. Simultaneously, the location- and direction- based geometry data are transformed using transformation matrices to produce images that align beside other objects in the real view. As such, the position tracker and orientation tracker are important elements of AR systems and the development AR technology. Figure 6 summaries the tracking and display process. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 5– No.5, August 2010Figure 5. System diagram.室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–7–The properties of the furniture graphics are saved in a database generated by a CAD application, e.g. 3DSMax software, while OpenGL renders the final graphics. Plus, an ARToolKit software library is used to calculate the 3D positions and orientations of the virtual furniture.Figure 6. AR tracking& display process: the computergenerated graphics are integrated into user’s view.3.3 SoftwareCAD applications handle the management of the building geometry data and link it to a database. Next, the AR software retrieves and displays the position and orientation data in the defined environment.The 3DSMax or other Building Information Modelling (BIM) applications (e.g. ArchiCAD, Revit etc.) are used as the basic software for the CAD applications and also provides customized support for ARToolKit- 2.72.1. The 3DSMax (and others) produces a VRML file of a model which has a type *.wrl extension. An ARToolKit library then assumes the role of building the AR application. One of the key difficulties involved in developing an AR application is tracking the user’s viewpoint.In order to determine which viewpoint to use to align the virtual imagery with real-world objects, the AR application first needs to determine the viewpoint of the user in the real world.ARToolKit software uses computer vision algorithms to solve thisproblem. An ARToolKit video tracking library defines the virtualcamera position and orientation relative to physical markers inreal time. The ARToolKit library- the product of HIT Lab NZ- isthen used to display the virtual objects.3.4 HardwareIn the present study, the AR system is based on a regular PC with a Windows XP operating system running on an Intel (R) Core(TM) Quad CPU Q6600 with 2GB of RAM. Plus, a 室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–8–webcam, Logitech Quickcam Vision Pro, is used to capture the sense images. The user’s camera is capable of detecting known patterns from a single image and calculating the 3D position and orientation for world-space. The virtual objects (furniture, partitions, walls, doors, etc.) are then superimposed based on marker tracking.Figure 7. Left: Fiducial marker patterns. Right: Sub-markercard for Tangible AR control.Some of the tracking markers used by an ARToolKit library are very precise and robust. In this study, mk_patt.exe files were used to generate various image markers from a blankPatt.gif pattern directory. For implementation, several marker patterns and submarker templates for Tangible AR were made beforehand.The Head-Mounted Display (HMD) also is equipped for user in the practical implementation. By using HMD for AR display, the user can move freely around virtual furniture when they are viewing it. The figure 8 shows an example of how the components International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 5– No.5, August 2010 of AR system working together to produce the final results on video eye-monitors.Figure 8. Schematic illustration of video overlaid- based Augmented Reality& VR Pro AR 800x600 HMD.3.5 Interaction method on occlusion markers for Tangible ARThis paper applies an interaction object- centered view to 2D interactions, which is easy to apply to Tangible AR environments where natural interaction methods are vital. In the real world, humans are able to use a variety of objects or bare fingers as a pointer. In addition, for 室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–9–some situations with multiple participants or bi-manual interactions, the interaction can even involve multiple pointers.Detecting pointers over an interaction object can be achieved in numerous ways, where detecting the occlusions of the tracked object is a passive way to detect pointing actions. The occlusions of an interaction object can be easily utilized as an interaction method in Tangible AR environments in which a camera is already available for providing real-world views to the user and tracking the objects of interest with passive formal markers.For occlusion detection, predefined formal markers are widely used for tracking real objects in Tangible AR environments. Vision-based tracking systems usually require multiple markers for tracking one object. A number of markers are attached to a single object in a pre-configured spatial relationship. In this way, the object can be tracked successfully even if some of markers in the marker set are not visible. In addition, because the spatial relationships of all the markers are known, the poses of markers that are not visible can be estimated using the markers that are recognized.A simple way to guarantee that a marker is within the view volume is to check the visibility of its neighboring markers, referred to as boundary markers, while a marker being checked for occlusion is referred to an interaction marker.To guarantee that an interaction marker is within the view volume, the boundary markers must be carefully placed. The convex hull of the boundary markers must include the interaction marker. For instance, for a single interaction marker, at least 2 boundary markers are needed surrounding the interaction marker (Figure 9). By checking whether these boundary markers are visible, the interaction marker can be guaranteed to be within the view volume, making it occluded if it is not detected.Figure 9. Boundary markers around interaction markers.When multiple interaction markers are placed in a line, the neighbors of the interaction marker being tested can also be treated as boundary markers. These markers are referred to as hybrid markers (Figure 10). The tested marker within the view volume whenever there is at 室 内 设 计 在 增 强 现 实 环 境–10–least one visible boundary (or hybrid) marker on each side. Thus, hybrid markers act as both boundaries and an interaction point. In this way, the occlusion of multiple consecutive markers can also be detected, as well as allowing the boundary markers to be out of view.Figure 10. Hybrid markers: center hybrid marker plays role of boundary marker for left hybrid marker.Although the boundary marker method is simple to implement and works reliably, marker wastage is unavoidable, since additional non- interactable boundary markers are required. Plus, interaction is little difficult, as the user has to make sure that enough boundary markers are within the current view.3.6 Interaction virtual furniture usingTangible ARTangible Augmented Reality interfaces combine a tangible user interface and augmented reality technology. In the present study, virtual furniture is modified using an occlusion- based interface for Tangible AR effects. Tangible AR interfaces are where each virtual object is registered to a physical object, and a user interacts with the virtual objects by manipulating the corresponding physical objects. In this case, occlusion is a simple way of completing interactions based on hiding the formal markers from being tracked. In this study, two sub-marker band cards are made, where one controls the color and the other controls the material of the virtual furniture. In particular, these marker templates are combined from several unit markers (Figure 7-Right).Each unit marker corresponds to one option. In the implemented AR system, the
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