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    Anthony SullyB asisInterior Design: Conceptual IntroductionThese organisational methods include balance, arrangement, sequence, scale and proportion; when used effectively, unity results…Both the visual elements and their organising principles serve to form a tangi-ble entity from the designer’s concept. Malnar and VodvarkaIn my frst book ‘Interior Design: Theory and Process’, I described the basic for-mat of study of this discipline with appropriate historical references as well as pro-posing ways forward in establishing some kind of code or language that I consider is needed in the face of so much present-day free-for-all anarchic design solutions. I explained the whole sequence of the design process, and part of that process is the formation of ideas that engages the designer with the elements of designing an interior. The term ‘idea’ has multiple applications and is used in common parlance. In design, we refer to these ideas as concepts.The contemporary use of concept as an architectural design method developed over several centuries and owes much to the idea that architecture (Interior design), like art, must express something beyond its own materiality. Philip PlowrightMany books have been written about interior design, interior decoration and its associated disciplines of architecture, furniture, products and crafts. As far as I know there has never been a book written about the concepts of interior design or, indeed, analysing what these are. The theoretical basis of interior design, as out-lined in my last book, is based upon a core of the following as the main ingredients:Geometry—measured shape, form and proportionThe human form—demanding needs for the activitiesPerception—controlling what we seeExpression—reasoning of why with conclusive effectJoy Malnar and Frank Vodvarka, The Interior Dimension (New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992) p. 36.3Philip Plowright, Revealing Architectural Design (London, Routledge, 2014) p. 245.xvii232xviii IntroductionThe grand concept of a design scheme, which uses the above, has been com-monly used, but that is a post-descriptive term to explain the fnal design. The breakdown into different concepts in this book is an attempt to explain the deeper workings of each one in order to strengthen the designer’s concentrated efforts in the design process and confrm the full status of a design scheme.In this book, I would like to expand this study to see if this helps to regularise interior design into a manageable and effective discipline. I intend to focus upon seven of the eight concepts that I listed in my last book that generate the main concept of a scheme and explain how they can be formed and how they interrelate. I am also in pursuance of a climate that is free of the strictures of style such as Modernism.As Salingaros says:In architecture, the stark modernist interiors that came of age with Adolf Loos and later with the Bauhaus have been very unsuccessful in eliciting the type of univer-sal and visceral attraction and sense of comfort that more traditional interior envi-ronments accomplish, as witnessed by what the majority of the population chooses as their living interiors. People like to bring objects such as photographs, plants, dolls, and objets d’art into their living space and workplace. This practice has been condemned by a rather narrow design élite that continues to support the old minimalist design ideology against overwhelming evidence of what makes people most comfortable.My research has uncovered much discussion and expositions by writers who are trying to explain what interior design is (defnitions, discipline, profession), where it has come from (history, which I have covered in my frst book), exploring the feld of interior design (design research, philosophy), who uses interiors (the users, behavioural studies), the importance of interior design (social contribution), healthy interior design (responsibility, sustainability) and effects of interior design (people responses). I intend to continue to redefne the core of what and how inte-rior design is formulated.So, I am still dealing with the conceptual growth of ideas as opposed to the practical applications of material and construction technology, and the statutory regulations that accompany such subjects. The two driving forces willing the birth of a concept are inspiration and motivation. Sources of ideas exist in all aspects of life from culture, industry, politics, philosophy and the community. Such sources are considered to be outside the discipline of design, whereas those sources that come from within the knowledge base of the discipline are considered to be ‘inside’ the discipline. This book is concentrating on the inside sources. A concept is not to be confused with a ‘Style’, which usually refers to an established visual theme both historical and modern that fts a certain social strata.4Nikos Salingaros, Fractal Art and Architecture Reduce Physiological Stress, Article 2012.4Introduction xixWhile a style, so far, has been defned in terms of a few particular formal traits common to a number of works of art, we should rather let ‘style’ imply the formal probability structure of a symbol system. Christian Norberg-SchulzAside from dress, décor is the most immediate extension of the body; it constitutes a language, a set of signs, a defnite notion of the art of living at a particular moment in time. François BaudotStyle implies a group of different products that belong to each other by com-mon physical properties or linking devices, which produces a visual assemblage. Their total assembly is unique and can be compared with other assemblies whose products will have different properties, thus creating another ‘style’.I do not aim to ponder on the wider social needs of society, gender issues or global and market forces that help shape our future as such issues are well covered elsewhere. In my professional experience, the design process has been led by an overarching con-cept supported by subordinate elements that have been dictated to. For example, the major concept for a cinema interior may be a combined historical, rich and comforta-ble atmosphere. One of the subordinate elements would be lighting which constitutes a huge range of fttings and effects. In order to plan and specify the lighting, the designer needs to have a concept of it. This will defne effect, control, duration, location and so on. I have analysed these subordinate elements and concluded that their roles should not be secondary to the main concept, but rather, they need to be raised on an equal footing in order to sharpen and improve the interior designer’s skill base. Their con-tribution will still help to form a dominant concept. These elements form the concepts of this book for each chapter, and they will be described in terms of their content, their boundaries of subject and their overlap with each other.In addition, an overall conceptual position can make it easier to engage in synthe-sis during the refnement stages of the design process as there is a clear set of judgement criteria, fxed by the conceptual position to guide the formation of the whole. Philip PlowrightInterior design has always proved to be a slippery feld of work and study in terms of defning what it is, so in order that the reader sees my book in context here are some views by others as well as myself.Interior Design Education and PracticeIt is often debated as to whether it is necessary for a designer to be able to draw freehand. I maintain, and any professional designer will say the same, that draw-ing is a vital part of the design process by being an extension of the brain and 5Christian Norberg-Schuiz, Intentions in Architecture (Massuchusetts, The MIT. Press 1965) p. 70.Francois Baudot, Compendium of Interior Styles (New York, Assouline, 2005) p. 7.7Philip Plowright , Revealing Architectural Design (London, Routledge, 2014) p. 252.5676xx Introductioneternalises the visual powers of expression. In other words, it is a process of giv-ing form and shape to mental visions. It is therefore a means of obtaining feed-back from the drawing and enables the designer to make changes over a period of time. It is about making emotional gestures, which are given form and eventually become representations of the design.It is through drawing that we not only explore the possibilities of new design but also acquire the fundamental language of architecture. (Interior Design). Simon UnwinThere are different and opposing views of what constitutes critical interior design. Historically, North American interior design research has leaned towards the pragmatic and has tended to concern itself with practical problems as opposed to philosophical ones. Abercrombie 1990; Guerin and Martin 2001There is a disparity between the theories used to teach interior design and the actual act of designing. Some of these theories are ascribed as objectivist and absolute truths (Mitchell 1993; Kruft 1994). Notions of truth, beauty and values embedded in assumptions about what constitutes design in general, and interior design in particular, are often taken for granted (Ainley 1998; Vaikla-Poldma 2003). Tiiu Poldma, University of Montreal, Canada, 2003Despite signifcant variation in regional approaches to interior design nomencla-ture, regulation accreditation and research, there is global agreement about the contested and problematic nature of the identity of interior design. Joanne Cys, University of South Australia, 2008. Paper: ‘Undisciplined’.Increased complexity in the design of interior environments has demanded a more focused expertise and skill set related to sustainable interior materials, ergonom-ics, design for multiple populations, ADA compliance, workplace design, facilities management, interior lighting and other aspects of the built environment focused at the interior scale. John Weigand, article ‘Interior Design and Architecture’, Design Intelligence. March 2013Interior ArchitectureThe use of the term interior architecture is viewed by some as yet another threat to a profession that others would argue has constantly had to defend itself since the title of interior design was adopted in the 1960s. It seems that we have not done as adequate job of communicating exactly what it is that we do or the value that we bring to the table.So given our past history, the public perceptions of our profession and the seem-ingly continual fear that interior design will be subsumed by architecture, what are we to do when at times our future is being challenged and seems bleak? Allison Carll White, Ph.D., University of Kentucky. Journal of Interior Design, IDEC 20098Simon Unwin, Analysing Architecture (Routledge, London,2014) p. 4.8Introduction xxiThere is a fne line between architecture and interior design in this book. In terms of the subject matter of interior environments, these disciplines become one and the same: elements present in the design of interiors, whether architectural or dec-orative, contribute to the qualities of the same place. Roberto Rengel, University of Wisconsin-MadisonIn terms of philosophy and practice interior, architecture is a discipline that is heavily (although not exclusively) involved with the remodelling and repurposing of existing buildings and so has an important role to play in the sustainable reuse of the built environment. John Coles and Naomi House, Middlesex UniversityWe may defne interior architecture as the design of structurally created interiors, for domestic, recreational and business usage, which apply some architectural processes. Clive Edwards, Loughborough UniversitySome of the ideas that characterise Interior Architecture are strong three-dimen-sional development, respect for the enclosing architecture, sensitivity to the human experience, primal signifcance of light, wealth and energy of colour and furnish-ings as an extension of the architecture. Kurtich and Eakin, The School of the Art Institute of ChicagoInterior architecture is comprised of at least some elements of all three felds: design, architecture and art. Ellen Klingenberg, Oslo National Academy of the ArtsArt and DesignArt and Design have been converging towards each other at an ever increasing rate over the past 30 years that this conjoined spirit is realised by leading art-ists and designers. Interior Design has to be charged with a creative spirit that seeks solutions which combines art and sculpture resulting in forms that work by storing, displaying, that facilitate working and that supports the human form. A designer works like an artist, and an artist works like a designer. Anthony Sully 20119Roberto Rengel, Shaping Interior Space (New York, Fairchild Publications Inc. 2003) p. 10.10John Coles and Naomi House, The Fundamentals of Interior Architecture (Switzerland, Ava Publishing 2007) p. 10.Clive Edwards, Interior Design, a Critical Introduction (Oxford, Berg, 2011) p. 2.John Kurtich and Garret Eakin, Interior Architecture (New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996) p. vii.13Ellen Klingenberg, Interior Architecture—a body of knowledge and a feld for research (paper 25.07.2009).9101112131112xxiiInterdisciplinaryIntroduction…cross discipline work is too little encouraged in the art schools themselves. Fred Scott—‘On Altering Architecture’ 2008It is certainly true according to my own experience that each department tends to build a wall around it for fear of outsiders affecting the controlled stability of management and infexible programming. Compared with 30 years ago, there is certainly less of a sharing culture between academics who are striving to chase a PhD., partly due to university pressure to improve its own research ranking, but partly due to the academic’s own protectionist methods as though sharing would devalue their efforts.Interior design is an interdisciplinary practice that is concerned with the creation of a range of interior environments that articulate identity and atmosphere, through the manipulation of spatial volume, placement of specifc elements and furniture and treatment of surfaces. Brooker and StoneSummaryFrom the above, it is clear that the problem of establishing what the identity of interior design is has become a common topic for debate. The emergence of ‘Interior Architecture’ as a renamed version of ‘Interior Design’ does nothing to clea
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