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    大 连 理 工 大 学 本 科 外 文 翻 译设计空间的含义Meanings of Designed Spaces学 院(系): 建筑与艺术学院 院专 业:艺术设计(环境艺术设计)计学 生 姓 名: 赵洋洋 洋设计空间的含义学 号: 201257001 01指 导 教 师: 都伟 伟完 成 日 期: 2016 年 3 月 25 日 大连理工大学Dalian University of Technology设计空间的含义- 1 -Meanings of Designed SpacesSpaces of Everyday Life, Self, and Social ConstructionsSignificant space, house, habitat, home, dwelling, gender, social status, spatial arrangements, living well, escapism, semiology, cultural and visual content analysis, politically social spaces, social space construction, theatrical space construction, cultural space construction, public and private spaces, political spaces, proxemics.AFTER READING THIS CHAPTER, YOU WILL BE ABLE TO:· Glean ideas about social spaces, spaces of living, and how spaces become places of social constructions.· Differentiate philosophical approaches to spaces of living.· Consider what constitutes a significant space.· Distinguish concepts of “living well“ versus “home as defining a sense of self.“· Understand spaces of living and the social constructions of space and place.· Identify characteristics of house as home, dwelling as home, and house as habitat.· Consider cultural contexts to issues of dwelling, gender, and space.· Understand how identity frames spaces as places of dwelling.INTRODUCTIONSpaces we live in formulate our experiences. We attribute meaning to the things and spaces that surround us. Our sense of self, the way we engage in our daily life, depends on our surroundings, our home, our place of work, and the places we hold dear. Spaces of living impact our sense of self, what we do, and the ways that we define ourselves in society, and in turn they provide us with meanings alongside a host of multiple perceptions and reactions. How might spaces of the everyday be understood from the perspectives of domestic life? How do living spaces reflect social constructions that affect our sense of self and who we are in the world?While spaces are created with visual and aesthetic properties in mind, they are ultimately meant for people to experience. People appropriate spaces they occupy and change them to suit their purposes. People attach value to the things that they have,while values are also 设计空间的含义- 2 -imposed by society and are complicated by the fracturing of contemporary society. This is further complicated by the ways spaces are framed that determine social status as much as well-being. What values we hold as a society also affect both our capacity to make choices and our social place in the world, and often inadvertently frame our design decision making. All these factors affect the spaces we inhabit, the ways we design these spaces, and the underlying values that shape spatial constructions we then experience.We place great value on culture, politics, and social norms and customs while we are also caught up in changing values. Among the underlying values that shape a society are social customs, voices of diverse people, or cultural customs. Although dwellings vary greatly as spaces depending on the societal values, economic location, and a host of factors that drive how we live, dwellings also are places where people often look to others tohelp them achieve meaning.Christian Norberg-Shultz has Suggested that home representsthe very nature of human existence. It gives man a place to be, a place in which to stay and spend time in safety and comfort. (Rengel, 2003, pp. 51-52)And while our aspirations are to achieve these goals, for many in our world, their places and spaces of living are far from this ideal. More often the values we set in terms of our dwelling places are tied to the acquisition of material goods, while for others this is a distant reality as they eke out an existence on the fringe (Poldma, 2008). Furthermore, this problem of value-setting creates a need for some to actualize values through the designs of lived spaces at the expense of the meaning of home and house. In a philosophical sense, the meanings of house and home have been subjugated: We look for meaning in our dwellings, and some hire architects and designers to actualize their values spatially. . . . and many do not know how to do so. The meanings of home and house have become lost in the quest to dwell, and the quest for dwelling has become lost in the acquisition of more goods and cultural symbols of that same house and home in a given society. (Poldma, 2008)These issues will be examined in this chapter from the perspectives of dwelling and 设计空间的含义- 3 -gender as social or philosophical spaces. Two theoretical papers examine meanings of house and home. Virginie LaSalle takes a philosophical perspective about how the concept of “living well“ intersects with notions of design spaces by providing spaces that form places of habitation that symbolize beauty and material wealth. She examines the sense of home as a habitat, and how an individual's experience of inhabiting is more than the physical and material visual attributes we assign. She explores Bachelard and Serfaty-Garzon's ideas of intimate spaces. She further juxtaposes the symbolic views of home with the philosophies of Heidegger and Levinas, who examine the dichotomy of the environment/spaces of living as a concept versus the daily experiences of the inhabitants. LaSalle is promoting the concept of a “significant space“ that bridges the forms and substance with the meanings of those who live and perceive the space as a dynamic place.Hanna Mendoza and Matthew Dudzik provide a provocation that contrasts living well with realities in a cultural context. Mendoza and Dudzik examine how home becomes a culturally defined place of identity, and how economics and cultural contexts change not only concepts of house and home but also determine territoriality and sense of self in social stratification. Using Brazil as the setting, Mendoza and Dudzik examine the impact of globalization and economic values juxtaposed against the realities of dichotomies, where we look for meaning in our dwellings, and some hire architects and designers to actualize their values spatially. ownership and control of personal space has become battle between the marginalized and empowered in Brazilian society. Notions of tribalism, nostalgia, and escapism are explored in these contexts, as is how spaces become frameworks for changing territorial and personal experiences.The second part of the chapter examines the socially constructed nature of gendered spaces. Theoretical constructs of gender and spaces are defined as I examine both gender and physical spaces as determinants in how social relations are played out. Tracing two seminal texts, fundamental ideas about space and gender are defined by Shirley Ardener, who unfolds concepts of social spaces, while Daphne Spain examines what constitutes gendered spaces. The paper then elaborates on views about culturally determined rules in terms of space and gender.Finally, the Dialogues and Perspectives closes the chapter with an examination of gender and social relations set in an examination of a woman photographer's framing of spaces at the turn of the century. Susan Close presents the context of gendered space within the framework of the photographic interiors of Lady Clementina Hawarden, from the perspective of cultural theory and gendered spaces. The ensuing dialogue examines issues of boundary, making it a historic context while also introducing a research methodology that uses cultural analysis as the framework for the methodology of reading the images. This semiotic approach in research 设计空间的含义- 4 -that uses found images (as in photography) analyzes the interior spaces as a means of comparing and contrasting social space, theatrical construction of space, and gendered space and in the context of social status.REFERENCESPoldma, T. (2008). Dwelling Futures and Lived Experience: Transforming Interior Space. Design hilosophy Papers, http://www.desphilosophy.com/dpp/dpp_journal/ paper2/body.html.Rengel, R. (2003). Shaping Interior Space. New York: Fairchild Publications.The Sense of Home as Habitat Virginie LasalleWhat help is it, to solve philosophical problems, if [one] cannot settle the chief, most important thing-how to live a good and happy life? “Live well!“ is the supreme philosophical commandment.-Ludwig Wittgenstein (excerpt from Shusterman, 1997)In the above quote, Wittgenstein is suggesting that one's will to contribute to good living should guide the design of the philosophical approach. If the thinker considers the goal of a good and healthy existence as predominant, it is because this existence underlies aspirations residing in everyone. For professionals in the disciplines of design, the will to contribute to this good living of our peers is a consideration that always inspires and is echoed in our spatial conceptions. The same applies to the design of interior space, notably when it comes to thinking and to shaping people's habitations, a proven material symbol of good and happy living in North American culture. The concept of home is often used as an archetypal refuge for dwellers in theirintimacy and their way of being.As designers of the interior inhabited space, we must ask ourselves what this intention-to live a good and happy life-means intrinsically and to strive to endow the space with solutions that, if adequate, will contribute to satisfying of this fundamental need. In a succinct look at the phenomenon of habitation, let us introduce the perceptions of thinkers to diverse disciplinary orientations for which the reflections guide the process of designing the residence.The Senses of HabitationThis will to develop the sense of home as habitat and to find the design approach has resided within thinkers and designers for a long time; the reiteration and expansion of 设计空间的含义- 5 -reflections clearly confirm the importance still attributed to the habitation today. For example, the versatility of the habitation's forms, which vary greatly with a number of criteria-including the functions of the space, needs, the living and cultural habits of the inhabitants, and the geographical situation. If reflection on the habitat's constructed frame ultimately concerns design professionals, then the theories that guide their actions are frequently the fruit of thinkers from diverse disciplines; thewritings of philosophers, anthropologists, sociologists, and psychologists participate in the founding of the design approach. A good part of this situation can be explained by the great complexity of the phenomenon of habitation, which firmly establishes itself to encompass a multitude of factors to be considered. Among the host of sources existing today, Gaston Bachelard, Perla Serfaty-Garzon, Martin Heidegger, and Emmanuel Levinas are invaluable references for their study of the phenomenon of habitation.In his phenomenological work, Tlze Poetics of Space (1957), Gaston Bachelard examines the being's invariable essence of inhabiting, while analyzing the poetics of habitation, perceived as an image of intimacy through its most authentic object that is the home. According to Bachelard, the home, in its unity and complexity, represents the material sense of the human experience and the materialization of its poetics. It is man's concrete anchoring, his primary world, and it characterizes him in his fundamental dimension of habitation:We should therefore have to say how we inhabit our vital space, in accord with all the dialectics of life, how we take root, day after day, in a “corner of the world.“ [. . .] For our house is our corner of the world. [. . .], it is our first universe. (1957)Bachelard's analysis of the poetics of habitation considers two predominant phases of analysis for this living space. First, the home is approached as an analysis instrument of the soul. Then the home is regarded more as an object to be developed, a collection of symbols for phenomenological material analysis. This second phase of analysis deals with the material and symbolic properties of the home. Through formal observation of his object, the philosopher expands on the poetic images that are found-such as the fireside, the space conducive to reverie- which make the habitation significant and bring it to the status of home for the resident.With her interest in the various senses or habitation, sociologist and environmental psychologist Perla Serfaty-Garzon observes the semantic richness of the various terms used to denote habitation-residence, house, home, hearth, etc. in connection with their manifestations 设计空间的含义- 6 -constructed over time. According to Serfaty-Garzon, this archetypal inhabited space merits the appellation home; for it is the anchoring point that provides life with spatial rooting. Inhabiting means living in a historical perspective, in symbiosis with a space and the people who share it.Thus, Serfaty-Garzon considers the phenomenon of habitation in a historical and sociological perspective. In her understanding, the emergence of the sphere of private life that led to the design of intimacy in occidental societies would be related to the specialization of spaces and would have brought about a sacralization of the dwelling. The appropriation envisaged by Serfaty-Garzon as an active component of home (2003, p.102) includes a moral, psychological, and affective sense. She suggests that the material character and ways that we personalize the space arc in part identified by a cultural model and then adjusted by our own particular individual expression that affirms our identity and how we construct oneself through our inhabited space (p.92). The symbolic analysis of the home's premises, as perceived by Serfaty-Garzon in a Bachelardian spirit, leads her to examine the hidden areas, such as the cellar and the attic territories of the unconscious through their own symbolism, but also through a constituent analysis that considers the verticality of the construction filled with dreamlike meaning in the experience of home (pp. 182-183). Related to the states of the person's soul, these spatial qualities fill the home's premises with meaning. They allude to an apparent irrationality (1999, p. 83) associated with the secret of what is concealed to foreign observation, corresponding to an inner self (1999, p. 86). Serfaty-Garzon suggests that the rooms of the home thus encompass meanings, essential to the respect of the living space's boundaries that are more or less permeable. Thus, the entrance would represent the area that civilizes intrusion; as a midway, it can call for or invite the passage to the interior space, or it can stop a movement. The entrance is the true in- between area: it is neither inside nor outside (2003, pp. 143-145). The living room is defined in modernity by the home's archetypal space for socializing. It is the home's foreground, the spatial conveyance of the inhabitant's construction and social cons
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