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    罗森塔尔 当代艺术 中心
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    广西科技大学毕业设计(论文)外文翻译课题名称 某城市博物馆建筑设计方案 学 院 土木建筑工程学院 专 业 建筑学 班 级 建筑 091 班 学 号 200900503006 姓 名 莫已秋 指导教师 卢琳彬、罗锐东 2014 年 5 月 20 日 Zaha Hadid Architects 2003Rosenthal Center for Contemporary ArtCincinnati, Ohio USAThe Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art is Prize-winning architect Zaha Hadid’s first building in the United States,and the first major American museum designed by a woman. It is also notable for its sophisticated interior spaces and the warm embrace of environment---all achieved for the relatively modest price of $20.5 million.—The center is not a collecting institution: It organizes and displays temporary exhibitions,installations, and performances. The institution had rented space in unceremonious locations throughout the city since its founding in 1939 as the Modern Art Society. Its new location on a prime corner in downtown Cincinnati—across the street from Cesdar Pelli’s Aronoff Center for the Arts—was a chance to increse its profile in city._Hadid wanted to draw the energy and activity of the city into the lobby and up into its galleries. To that end, she created an “urban carpet,” a concrete floor that sweeps in from the sidewalk through the lobby and folds up like a skateboarding ramp to frame the backdrop of a dramatic atrium. The skylit atrium, exending the full six-story height of building, features a kinetic, self-contained circulation spine. Ramplike stairs wrapped in steel box-beams energetically zigzag their way up through the skylit space to reach galleries on four floors._Hadid’s intent was to put everyone who uses the circulation spine in contact with all of the 87,500-square-foot(8,113-square-meter) building’s functions. The ground floor contains the lobby, reception area, and museum shop; an underground level houses a black-box performance space. The third floor and part of the fourth are given over to the museum’s offices and a staff lounge. The building’s uppermost level contains a children’s space, called the UnMuseum. The rest of the floors contain a variety of galleries-from double-height spaces to small and intimate rooms._The exterior elevations revesl the building’s interior organization. Hadid orchestrated volumes clad in precast concrete and anodized black aluminum into a dynamic massing of overlapping and intersecting blocks that stands out among Cincinnati’s staid downtown buildings. On the south facade each floor level is clearly articulated with bands of precast concrete, glass, or anodized steel. The long,striated blocks align respectfully with the cornices and floor lines of an adjacent historic building. Hadid challenged the logic of gravty by placing blocks of steel and concrete above bands of glass. On the building’s short side elevation, the exterior explodes with an energetic push-and-pull. The cantilevered ends of the individual volumes projecting begond each other and over the street create a sculptural urban bas-relief. The upward thrust of the urban carpet is clearly visible as the concrete sidewalk moves into the ground-floor lobby and up against the adjoining building, extending up the full six stories. Hadid’s building energizes the city, as well as the art within it._Opposite:The Rosenthal Center’s east-facing Walnut Street elevation is an energetic,abstract assembly of precast concrete and black anodized steel volumes cantilevering beyond each other. The volumes appear to float above the glass-enclosed lobby at street level.Oswald Mathias UngersGallery of Contemporary ArtHamburg, 1986—1996A museum is really just a piece of architecture, nothing more. Nothing more? If one takes it seriously, that’s no small thing. Every building commission is public by nature. It finds its audience in an environment that is mostly urban and with which it communicates:by way of its own function, by way of the demands of the other participants in the dialogue, by way of the place and its history,and—last but not least—by way of the act of building itself.In this regard every building commission possesses its own symbols and its own history.The museum, too, the vessel for art or other entities on show, is always something more than the bare envelope, more than a container or a black box. Certainly, one may demand that it withdraw into the background with regard to the art on exhibition. But what does this really mean? Must one really emphasize this, considering that the last ornament already disappeared decades ago from the outermost edges of the exhibition surfaces?A museum cannot disappear either. And here the paradoxical tenet of architecture is valid as well: the more the wall as relief withdraw into the background, the more substance and structure capture the foreground. One will always perceive them,just like the proportions and the atmosphere of the space. One must recognize that it is exactly here, in the emptiness of the museum, that the building exhibits itself.Briefly put: a museum is always a museum of architecture as well. Yet it’s still a long way from being a forged work of art attempting to compete with the works on exhibit. What, then, could cause an architect to become disconcerted here?Oswald Mathias Ungers has always worked on the most direct relationship between the envelope and its symbolism. The same design methodology that can entice countless variations from the square grid can at once appear simple, and in another moment precious:from the pragmatic convention centers for Frankfurt and Berlin to the representative residence of the German ambassador in Washington. What does this mean for the museum as such and—posed more concretely—where can the Gallery of Contemporary Art in Hamburg rightly take its place here?On could initially take the question literally; then it points at the relationship to the core of the whole, to the old and noble Kunsthalle. The beautiful and unusual masonry building in forms from the neo—Renaissance is now over 130 years old. It was already expanded once, at the begining of this century, with the cubical and classical addition in light limestone connecting directly toward the main train station. The other side remained for the Gallery of Contemporary Art, a long plateau with a view of the dam between the Binnenalster and Aussenalster waterways. The dreary boxes of the Kunsthaus and the Kunstverein,which had stood here since the sixties and degraded the exclusive site to the level of a service court, were able to be razed in 1992 in order to commence with construction of the gallery. Five years earlier,and one year after it won the competition.Ungers’s project was even presented at the Documenta in Kassel as the “museum in a box.” The explanatory text itself was already provocative in its lapidary self-demarcation:“As architecture,the museum is wall-space-light. The wall bounds the spaces. The flow of spaces effects the transformation between generosity and intimacy, uniformity and free form, light and dark, confinement and expanse, as well as inside and outside.The room sequence-the enfilade-is a museum.”Ungers advanced the new Gallery of Contemporary Art up to the front row and made it the terminating element in the row of buildings bordering the water of the Binnenalster like an inner-city square. The manner in which the radiant solitary is placed in this panorama while retaining is own exclusive distance is just as precisely fine-tuned as its relationship to the Kunsthalle.The beveled base of red Swedish granite plays with the memory of the Glockengiesserwall (bell foundry rampart) that once ran through here. The bevel belongs in equal measure to the street space as well as to the museum. Sitting on top and identical on all four sides is the cube, clad in light-colored Portuguese limestone, Joints and window divisions trace the spuare as design module on the facade while a rising window axis establishes the building midsection.Slightly raised, the base reaches to the front of the Kunsthalle, with the artificial island rising once more and crystallizing into a connecting platform. Ian Hamilton Finaly inscribed the base-in Roman type, and in four languages-with the fist work of art: “Homeland is not a country; it is a community of feelings.” What is blowing here, then-in the heavens above us, and in the art before and behind us-is the wind of enlightenment. Although only its wind, this is not a place of assembly for fraternal convocation. Rather, it is a place of sentimental empathy for humanity, which now finds its highest expression and hope solely in art.The seismic uplifting of the tectonic plates is a hint as well of that which iles hidden beneath. The more appropriate entrance into this underworld offers itself, then, not through the foyer in the cube, but once again through the point of departure, the Kunsthalle.From here, Jenny Holzer’s light band draws us down the long stair to the lowermost exhibition level, into a labyrinthine and cavernous space for the exhibition of art. Despite the considerable room height, one cannot filly forget the oppressiveness and the constriction unique to both genuine and false underworlds. An enfilade would have opened a passage and a view to the cube, had Richard Serra not blocked the path with an installation titled Splashig Seeing is Believing. “Art fist!” is another disarmingly ambiguous message in this small intervention.The black floor, made from industrial ceramic tiles, patiently cooperates even with works like this one in poured lead. Possible damages to the floor can be easily and inexpensively repaired. The floor appears at once workshop-like and then again elegant. For this reason one will find it in (nearly) every space in which art is on exhibition while ascending through the cube.Nonetheless, our first impression would have been much different had we chosen the stately, ground-level entrance into the gallery. Once inside, the central hall directs our view upward through all levels to the very top, where it is drawn out by a house-like skylight. Two Flights of stairs, leading upward while knowing nothing of each other, wrap themselves simultaneously around this space. Here, too, their proportions are steep and nearly sublime in nature. The exhibition spaces from a second outer circuit-white, of coures, and with the possibility of flexible division.The light changes from floor to floor. On the ground floor, with its floor-to-ceiling fenestration, a first gallery space lies between the bistro and the auditorium. Here, Ungers already suggests that he won’t hesitate to project art into the city: art as a part of the museum once again becomes a part of the urban culture whence it arises. This is particularly evident on the second floor, where the windows reach from the floor up to half of the room height, admitting light rich in effect around the sides. Even when pure artificial light from above and skylights supplemented with artificial lighting illuminate the uppermost floor, the continuons fenestration of the middle axis always establishes contact with the outside world and with the inside world via the central hall running straight through the building. At least as long as the sensor-driven cloth sunshading remains open, the Gallery of Contemporary Art is also a compass, offering orientation and a lookout tower replete with perfect picture-postcard views.Here in the cube the square as the unit of measurement is omnipresent, from the ground plan to the flooring and the furnishings up to the sunken lighting fixtures, including those for the emergency exits. The fire extinguishers and other installations have, like much else, disappeared into the walls. Everything is already in place in the concept. That offers quietude and the necessary concentration, without the design degenerating into meek incognizance or an unconscious collection of unrelated solutions.If the interconnectedness with the outer world holds out to the domain of artistic self-reference that there is indeed life outside art, then it can be interpreted within the wealth and diversity of the elementary realm, that there is equally an idea of architecture that withdraws from art (and life). But only when art is in this triangulation does it, too, receive that of which it is needful: resistance and free space.Ulrich Maximilian Sduimann扎哈·哈迪德建筑师事务所 2003 年罗森塔尔当代艺术中心美国俄亥俄州辛辛那提罗森塔尔当代艺术中心是获普利兹奖建筑师扎哈哈迪德在美国设计的第一个建筑物。同时这个艺术中心也是由女性设计的美国的第一大博物馆。它那复杂的内部空间和如温暖怀抱般的环境也是其显着的特点---建造以上的空间效果花费了 2050 万美元,是比较适中的。中心不是一个收纳的结构:它被用来组织和展示临时展览、安装、表演。在 1939 年,这结构作为现代艺术社会的有机部分已近在各地市甚至是在整个城市施行了。其坐落在一个极重要的位置,在辛辛那提市中心的街对面的 cesdar 地标辛辛纳提阿诺夫艺术中心,这是一个增加其在城市中的外轮廓线的绝佳机会。哈迪德想把这个城市的能量和活力带到主门厅,同时将其纳入它的画廊。为此,她创造了一个“城市地毯” ,混凝土地板,从人行道上横铺通过大厅,就像一个滑板斜坡框架下一个戏剧性的中庭。天窗的中庭足足有六层高,高度动态特性,独立的循环脊柱。楼梯用钢铁材料箱梁大力曲折的通过有天窗的空间达到画廊四层。哈迪德希望把每个使用循环脊柱的人接触所有的 87500 平方英尺(8113 平方米)的功能。一楼包含大厅,接待区,和博物馆商店,是一个黑盒子般的地下水平空间。第三层和第四的一部分已经变成了博物馆的办公室和员工休息室。建筑的最顶层包含一个孩子们的空间,称为非博物馆空间。其余的各层含有多种画廊,从两层高的空间到小亲密的房间,应有尽有。建筑的外部高度决定了建筑物的内部组织。哈迪德精心设计使卷穿着预制混凝土和阳极氧化黑色铝成动态的重叠和交叉块集结在辛辛那提市中心的建筑。在南立面每层水平面清晰的使用条形的的预制混凝土,玻璃,钢铁或阳极化处理。外立面装饰上那些长条型的,有条纹的,块状的檐板和地板线,以谦卑的姿态尊重相邻的历史建筑。哈迪德挑战地心引力的逻辑将一块块的钢铁和混凝土块挂在玻璃上。建筑的侧视图,外部爆炸能量推拉。能投射华瑞东方的独特悬臂结构,如在大街上创建一个城市浅浮雕雕塑。城市地毯是清晰可见的向上推力,随着混凝土人行道向楼下大堂和与延长了六层楼高的相邻建筑。哈迪德的建筑让城市充满活力并能将艺术很好的融入其中。相反:罗森塔尔中心的东向的胡桃街立面是一个有重量的,抽象的预制混凝土装配和黑色阳极氧化钢体块,体块似乎漂浮在玻璃幕墙上,其正努力地展示在街道上。奥斯瓦尔德·玛蒂亚斯· 翁格尔斯 当代艺术画廊 汉堡,1986 - 1996博物馆只是一种建筑类型,仅此而已。仅此而已吗?如果一个人重视它,这不是一件小事。每一个建筑委员会的本质都是公共性的。它的观众在主要是城市环境中的人们,人们与建筑沟通的方式:通过自身的行为活动,通过在这个对话中其他参与者的需求,通过及有历史的地方,最后是通过建筑本身的行为方式。在这方面每个建筑委员会拥有自己的符号和它自己的历史。博物馆建筑也亦然,艺术器皿或其他展览的物体,总是超过裸露的外表皮,超过一个容器或一个黑盒子。当然,你可以要求它脱离艺术展览主题的。但这真的含义是什么呢?有人也许正在强调这一点:考虑到最后的装饰已经在几十年前从展览的最外层边缘表面消失了?博物馆不能消失。这里建筑矛盾的原则是有效的,即越来越多作为结构支撑的墙体退出到历史舞台,更多的物质和结构的构件被展露出来。他们总是珍视如比例和空间的环境。人们必须认识到,正是在这里,在空旷的博物馆,建筑展品本身。简要地说:一个博物馆确实是一个博物馆的建筑。但它从一个构想中的艺术作品到在展览上完成并展出,仍然是一个很长的过程。那么,怎么可能不让建筑师惊慌呢?奥斯瓦尔德·玛蒂亚斯·翁格尔斯一直致力于研究最直接的表皮与象征意义之间的关系。相同的设计方法即通过方格网只是出现简单的排列或复杂的排列,可以得到数不清的结果:从法兰克福和柏林的务实的会议中心代表德国驻华盛顿大使。这对于博物馆意味着什么?更具体的说是要如何将当代艺术画廊放在正确的位置呢?对于古老而高贵的 Kunsthalle,从最初的把问题文字化到后来指出全面关系的核心问题,这座美丽而不同寻常的砌体建筑其形式从安顿下来到现在已经有130 多年的历史了。在本世纪初它已经进行了扩建,扩建物为光亮的石灰石连接的古典的立方体并直接与主要的火车站链接。另一边仍然是当代艺术画廊,坐落于内阿尔特湖与外阿尔特湖之间的水路间的大坝的一片很长的高原。自六十年代和退化的专属网站服务区时期就存在的 沉闷的艺术博物馆和艺术协会,能够在 1992 年被夷为平地是为了开始建设画廊。五年前,其在一年后赢得了竞争。翁格尔斯的项目甚至提出了卡塞尔文献展,使“博物馆在盒子里” 。在他固执的自我界定中解说性文字本身已具有挑战性 ,作为建筑,博物馆集合了墙体、空间和光线。墙边界围合的空间。空间的流动影响疏远和亲密之间的转换,均匀性和自由的形式,光明与黑暗,监禁和广阔,以及内部和外部。每一个房间的相对成列构成了这个博物馆。翁格尔斯建议新当代艺术画廊的前方延伸并终止在接壤内阿尔斯特湖的一排建筑上,使其像一个市中心的广场。这种独立的个体辐射状平面使建筑既被放置在整个环境中而又保留自己的专属距离的方式正如被精确地调整,正如它与美术馆的关系。瑞典红色花岗岩坡基地玩 Glockengiesserwall 的内存(贝尔铸造 rampart)曾经到过这里。同等程度的斜角所属街道空间以及博物馆。坐在顶部和相同的所有四个面是多维数据集,穿着浅色的葡萄牙石灰石、关节和窗口部门跟踪空间设计模块的外观而崛起的窗口轴建立建筑中部。稍微提高了,底部基本达到美术馆前,人工岛屿再次上升,结晶成连接平台。园林设计师 Ian Hamilton Finaly 创造了一个同时被翻译成四国语言的文学品:“国土不是一个国家,它是一个社区的感情。 “是什么在这里吹,接着——在诸天之上,和艺术前后的启蒙之风。尽管只有风,这不是一个兄弟召开大会的地方。相反,它是前发现的最高表现形式的人类情感的共鸣的场所,希望仅仅在艺术范畴中。地震构造板块的抬升是一个提示如同有导弹隐藏在下面。有更合适的机会进入这个地下世界提供本身,那么,不是通过多维数据集的大厅
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