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    Mountain Top Eco-Industrial Park: An Eco-industrial, Renewable Energy Approach for Industrial Park Development Jing Chu Thesis submitted to the Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design at West Virginia University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Landscape Architecture Peter Butler, MLA. Chair Angela Campbell, MLA. Hodjat Ghadimi, Ph.D. Landscape Architecture/Environmental Design Program Morgantown, West Virginia 2013 Keywords: Surface Mining, Renewable Energy, Eco-Industrial Park, Conceptual Design, Stormwater Management, Planting Design Copyright 2013 Jing ChuAll rights reservedINFORMATION TO ALL USERSThe quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted.In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscriptand there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC.All rights reserved. This work is protected againstunauthorized copying under Title 17, United States CodeProQuest LLC.789 East Eisenhower ParkwayP.O. Box 1346Ann Arbor, MI 48106 - 1346UMI 1554819Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author.UMI Number: 1554819ABSTRACT Mountain Top Eco-Industrial Park An Eco-industrial, Renewable Energy Approach for Industrial Park Development Jing Chu This project applies the concepts of industrial ecology and recreational gateway development to the redesign of an existing industrial park – Mountain Top Industrial Park in Grant County, West Virginia. The location of the existing industrial park, in close proximity to the CSX railroad and the future Corridor H expressway corridor, lends itself to eco-industrial development and may function as a touristic gateway to the region. The site is at the center of an ‘energy’ complex: Mount Storm Power Plant and former surface mines. Extractive industries and energy production will be a theme within the design project. An Eco–Industrial Park model will be applied in looking to a sustainable energy future for the site and the region. The result of this investigation is a new, common sense, approach to industrial park development that combines economic growth and environmental protection. Eco–Industrial parks make use of the raw material of industry and look to developing local industries to create a web of reuse and recycling of the waste products generated by existing facilities. Examples of potential materials for reuse include biomass from timber operations, waste from coal power plants, and agricultural wastes from regional cultivated fields. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Without the support of my advisor, colleagues, friends and family, the completion of this thesis would have never been possible. First of all, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Professor Peter Butler. He served as more of a mentor than a professor throughout my graduate study. I want to thank to him for his unending patience, guidance and assistance during my time at West Virginia University. I would like to thank my committee members Dr. Hodjat Ghadimi, Professor Angela Campbell. Thanks for their support and invaluable suggestions during this research. This work was performed under a project finished by the Northern West Virginia Brownfields Assistance Center. Thanks for their support and sponsorship. I would like to thank Patrick Kirby, Derek Springston and Professor Christine Risch from Marshall University for their help, support and guidance during the database inventory and analysis. I would like to thank Professors Charles Yuill, Kathryn Wittner, Steven McBride, Ashley Kyber, and Carrie Moore; and Ms. Dianna Spring who gave me lots of help and support when I was at West Virginia University. I would like to give my best thanks and wishes to my friends, Claire Jeran, Ayaka H. Matthews and Maria J. Lloreda and other graduate students in the Department of Landscape Architecture at West Virginia University. More importantly, I want to thank my lovely husband, Peng Zhang, for encouragement, patience and support. Also, thanks for my son, Andy Zhang, for bringing happiness to my work and study. iv Table of Contents ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................... iii Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... iv List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ vi List of Tables ............................................................................................................................... viii Chapter 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................1 1.1 Background ...................................................................................................................... 1 1.1.1 Surface Mining........................................................................................................ 1 1.1.2 Process of Surface Mining ...................................................................................... 2 1.1.3 Sustainable Energy Parks ........................................................................................ 3 1.1.4 Project Site – Mountain Top Industrial Park .......................................................... 4 1.2 Statement of Problems and Inquiries ............................................................................... 5 1.3 Purpose of Study .............................................................................................................. 6 1.4 Goals and Objectives ....................................................................................................... 6 1.5 Project Outline ................................................................................................................. 7 1.5.1 Phase 1: Inventory & Analysis ............................................................................... 7 1.5.2 Phase 2: Conceptual Design.................................................................................... 7 1.5.3 Phase 3: Stormwater Management .......................................................................... 7 1.5.4 Phase 4: Detailed design ......................................................................................... 7 Chapter 2. Inventory & Analysis ...................................................................................................8 2.1 Project Description........................................................................................................... 8 2.2 Regional Inventory........................................................................................................... 9 2.2.1 Adjacent Communities – Economic Drivers .......................................................... 9 2.2.2 Recreational Destinations ..................................................................................... 10 2.3 Site Inventory ................................................................................................................. 13 2.3.1 Transportation ....................................................................................................... 13 2.3.2 Former Coal Mines ............................................................................................... 15 2.3.3 Mount Storm Power Plant & Trans–Allegheny Interstate Line (TrAIL) ............. 15 2.3.4 Environmental Assessment ................................................................................... 16 v 2.3.5 Summary from Environmental Inventory & Analysis .......................................... 18 2.4 Clean Energy .................................................................................................................. 19 2.4.1 Bioenergy .............................................................................................................. 21 2.4.2 Wind Energy ......................................................................................................... 28 2.5 Approach ........................................................................................................................ 32 2.5.1 Green Infrastructure .............................................................................................. 32 2.5.2 Summary of Benefits ............................................................................................ 34 2.5.3 Wetlands Types ..................................................................................................... 36 2.5.4 Mixed-use Development ....................................................................................... 37 2.6 Summary from Inventory & Analysis............................................................................ 38 2.6.1 Weaknesses ........................................................................................................... 38 2.6.2 Threats................................................................................................................... 39 2.6.3 Strengths ............................................................................................................... 39 2.6.4 Opportunities......................................................................................................... 39 Chapter 3. Concept Design ..........................................................................................................40 3.1 Case Studies ................................................................................................................... 40 3.1.1 Qunli Stormwater Park – Haerbin City, China ..................................................... 40 3.1.2 TaigaNova Eco-Industrial Park– Fort McMurray, Canada ................................... 41 3.1.3 Renewable Energy Education Park– Pushpa Gujral Science City, India ............. 43 3.2 Functional Diagrams ...................................................................................................... 44 3.3 Concept .......................................................................................................................... 46 3.4 Perspective ..................................................................................................................... 48 Chapter 4. Stormwater Management ...........................................................................................53 4.1 Chesapeake Stormwater Design Criteria ....................................................................... 53 4.2 Sizing of Bioretention .................................................................................................... 54 4.2.1 Bioretention Surface Area in Mountain Top Industrial Park ................................ 56 Chapter 5. Detailed Design ..........................................................................................................58 5.1 Plant Selection Principle ................................................................................................ 58 5.2 Biomass Species Plant Palettes ...................................................................................... 59 5.3 Bioretention & Wetland Plant Palettes .......................................................................... 59 References 65 vi List of Figures Figure 1. Location of Upper Potomac Coalfield ............................................................................. 1 Figure 2. West Virginal Coalfields ................................................................................................. 2 Figure 3. Process of Surface Mining............................................................................................... 3 Figure 4. Coalfield in Mountain Top Industrial Park ..................................................................... 4 Figure 5. Western Maryland Railroad in Upper Potomac Coalfield .............................................. 5 Figure 6. Location of Mountain Top Industrial Park ...................................................................... 8 Figure 7. Location of Adjacent Communities................................................................................. 9 Figure 8. Geography & Demographics of Adjacent Communities............................................... 10 Figure 9. Recreational Destinations .............................................................................................. 12 Figure 10. Site Inventory of Mountain Top Industrial Park ......................................................... 12 Figure 11. Entire Route of Proposed Corridor H .......................................................................... 14 Figure 12. Construction Status of Proposed Corridor H ............................................................... 14 Figure 13. Clearance Zone for TrAIL Transmission Line ............................................................ 15 Figure 14. Slope & Hillshade of Mountain Top Industrial Park ................................................... 16 Figure 15. Topography & Soil Types of Mountain Top Industrial Park ...................................... 17 Figure 16. Soil Types Descriptions of Mountain Top Industrial Park Soils ................................. 17 Figure 17. Summary from Environmental Inventory & Analysis ................................................ 19 Figure 18. Price Estimates from Traditional Energy & Clean Energy ......................................... 20 Figure 19. Energy Moves from Energy Generators to Your Home. ............................................. 21 Figure 20. Regional Land Cover ................................................................................................... 22 Figure 21. Proximity to Railroad & Mount Storm Power Station ................................................ 23 Figure 22. Unemployment Rate for Maryland & West Virginia .................................................. 26 Figure 23. Wind Resources at Mountain Top Industrial Park ...................................................... 29 Figure 24. Wind Turbines Layout in Mountain Top Industrial Park ............................................ 29 Figure 25. Monthly Estimated Energy Output at 7.7 and 7.3 m/s ................................................ 30 Figure 26. Solar Resources at Mountain Top Industrial Park ....................................................... 31 Figure 27. Typical Extensive Green Roof Cross – Section .......................................................... 33 Figure 28. Bioretention System on Street .............................................................
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