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    广西科技大学毕业设计(论文)外文翻译课题英文名称 Green building in China: Needs great promotion课题中文名称 绿色建筑在中国:需要伟大的推广学 院 土木建筑工程学院专 业 建筑学 班 级 建筑 092 学 号 200900503054 姓 名 农文锋 指导教师 陈群、唐柳丽 2014 年 03 月 01 日原文:Green building in China: Needs great promotionAbstractResource depletion and environment pollution is a great challenge in the world today. As the main human living environment, building is one of the main contributor of energy consumption and pollution emission, construction industry has become the focus of energy conservation and emission reduction. China has been the world's largest carbon emitter and the world's largest energy consumer country since 2011. To solve these two issues, the promotion of green building (GB) is of great urgency. This article analyzed GB situation and challenges in China, and then pointed out some special requirements of GB. At last, authors put forward some suggestions to promote the development of GB according to current situations in China including: taking measures to enhance awareness of stakeholders, strengthening technology research and communication and establishing codes and regulations.Keywords Green building;  Building energy consumption;  Energy-saving1. Introduction1.1. The concept of green buildingThe concept of GB in China is developed from “Energy-Saving and Land-Saving Residential Building” launched by the central government in 2004. To be specific, the GB should be energy-saving, land-saving, water-saving and material-saving, environment-benign and pollution-reducing, summarized as “Four-daving and One-benign”. It is defined in Chinese national standard, Evaluation Standard for Green Building, enacted in 2006 (Ministry of Construction, 2006). The so-called “green”, is not the general meaning of green, but a concept or symbol. It stresses people-oriented and puts emphasis on sustainable development and environmental symbiosis to achieve harmonious coexistence among people, nature and building. GB is also known as ecological building, sustainable building, energy-saving building, etc. Its ultimate goal is low consumption and low emission, but the “low” does not mean high-tech or high investment. Actually, GB is a climate adaptative building, which requires adopting appropriate technology as much as possible to reduce energy consumption, meanwhile materials should be recycled and fully localized to achieve the lowest cost of energy and comfort.1.2. Origin of green buildingThe curator of Architecture and Design Library in American National Building Museum, Giessen David, pointed out that the seeds of GB can trace back to a century or more ago. According to this, the birth of British Palace in the first world expo and Galleria Vittorio Emmanuele in Milan in the early 19th century have begun to use passive system such as roof fan and underground air cooling box to regulate indoor temperature. Early at the 20th century, Flatiron Building and New York Times Building in US have designed windows embedded into walls to reduce sunlight. Ecological system and natural environment have already been taken into consideration in early architectural design, which become the buds of green building. Until the 1960s, American architect Paola Soleri combined the two words “ecology” and “building” together, and put forward the new idea of “ecological building” (green building). In 1969, the publication of the book “Design with Nature” by American architect Ian Lennox McHarg, marked the birth of ecological architecture. Through more than half a century, GB has become a new building style that fully integrated energy-saving, building design and environmental-protection from its initial simple mode, and it is more adaptable to current situation of energy shortage, so it is a new trend of building development model.1.3. Global actions to develop green buildingTo create a better environment for developing GB, countries around the world began to formulate relevant standards. The United States enacted the ASHRAE (American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers) standard “Energy-saving in Design for New Building” for the first time in 1975. UK began to create GB standards as early as in 1990 (Chegut et al., 2011), and all buildings should satisfy green building criteria from 2008 in Britain (Bulkeley et al., 2011); In 2009, Britain announced Low Carbon Transition Plan, required all new buildings achieving zero-emission from 2016, all new public buildings from 2018, all office buildings from 2019 and all residential finish Smart Meters installation before 2020 (Peters, Fudge, in America, 43 billion dollars is saved in energy cost and environment management since the first energy-saving standard to 2011 (Danielski, 2012).GB in China started relatively late. In 1996, New Urban Building Energy Efficient Standard System was issued, which is composed by the residential building energy conservation design standard. Residential Building energy conservation Design Standard of Hot Summer and Cold Winter Region was issued in 2001 and was updated in 2003. In September 2004 with the start of Green Building Innovation Award, GB in China stepped into a comprehensive developing stage. In 2006, Evaluation Standard for Green Building was officially promulgated. Evaluation Standards for Green Industrial Building and Evaluation Standards for Green Office Building started in 2009 and 2010, respectively. At present, at least 50% building energy efficiency is achieved in almost all regions of China, unlike some big cities as Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin are executing the standards which require energy efficiency must achieve at least 65%, while Beijing is executing the new goal of 75% since “12th Year Plan” (Li and Wang, 2012 and National People's Congress, 2011). However, building industrialization just starts in China, and there is still a great gap comparing with foreign countries.2. Why to develop green building2.1. To reduce CO2 emissionOn 3rd, December 2012, the famous journal “Nature” published an authoritative scientific research report. According to the report, the global CO2 emission has increased to record 35.6 billion tons in 2012, and the largest carbon emission countries in 2011 are: China (28%), United States (16%), European Union (11%) and India (7%). Among them, emissions of China and India in 2011 increased by 9.9% and 7.5% respectively, while United States and European Union reduced by 1.8% and 1.8% respectively (Nature Climate Chenge, 2013). China has become No.1 CO2 emitter country in the world, surpassing U.S. in 2007 with approximately 8% more emission (IEA, 2011). According to EIA (Energy Information Administration) estimation, CO2emission in United States will be 5.68 billion tons in 2015, but it will be far more than this in China (EIA, 2011). In “12th five-year plan” in China, the carbon emission in 2015 is 7.89 billion tons, which is 2.21 billion tons higher than the United States, if the total energy consumption is more than 4.1 billion tons, the carbon emission gap between China and United States will be more huge. China is in great pressure.The greatly increasing emission further expands the gap between actual emission and the goal to control global warming within 2 °C. To ensure the global warming within 2 °C, the global carbon emission must be deeply cut by 2020 (Huntingford et al., 2012). In China, it has been decided that 17 percent reduction of carbon dioxide emissions for every GDP unit should be achieved by the end of 2015(Yu about 221.5 kg cement will be used in each 1 m3 concrete, and it is 80 kg more than developed countries (Zhang & Gu, 2012). The existing building areas are 430 × 108 m2 in China, 90% of them are high energy consumption construction. Compared with developed countries, the thermal isulation performance building envelope is poor, as shown in Table 1, the larger the number is, the faster heat run off. The heat transfer coefficient of all parts in China is 2–3 times higher than developed countries (RGBI, 2010). Due to poor thermal insulation of building envelope and low efficiency of heating systems, energy consumption for heating in north China is the largest component of building energy consumption (BEC), as shown in Fig. 1(Cai, Wu, Zhong, & Ren, 2009). In addition, it is about 25 kg/m2 standard coal in China, which is 2–4 times larger than that of Northern Europe in similar climate, and carbon emissions are 2–5 times higher than international standard (Qi & Li, 2013).3.2. Achievements of the Green Building in ChinaAlthough ten years later than western countries, GB in China develops rapidly. Especially in recent five years, GB in China developed at an alarming speed every year (Fig. 2) (Green building map, 2013). In China, GB evaluation standards mainly used are LEED rating system issued by USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council) and Three-Star rating system issued by Chinese government. The number of Three-Star projects in 2009 increased by 100% than 2008, and the number in 2010 increased by 290% than 2009. The green building number and area in 2012 is equivalent to the sum from 2008 to 2011(Sun & Zhao, 2013). The number of LEED projects every year is shown in Fig. 3 (Jerome Sebbag, 2013). They are almost in the same increasing trend. The minister of Ministry of Construction, Qiu baoxing pointed out that, in 2005, buildings executed energy efficiency standards in design stage only account for 53%, performing stage 21%, but after five years, the proportion increased to 99% and 99% respectively (Qiu, 2011). During the “11th five-year plan” period, GB demonstration area reached 13,000,000 m2, the accumulative total GDP energy consumption fell 19.1%, the building energy saving contributed 20% of the energy saving (Li et al., 2011). During “12th five year”, China plan to complete new GB 1 billion square meters and 20% of new buildings in cities and towns can reach GB standards by the end of 2015.3.3. Features in the development3.3.1. High proportion of national projectsAccording to research, most GB projects are directed by the national agencies, directed by local agencies only account for about 27% of the total number in 2010 and 2011, as shown in Fig. 4 (CABR, 2012). The reason for this is China is still in the initial stage of GB, neither developers nor consumers have a strong consciousness to promote green building. So this has become an obstacle on the way to develop GB. A relatively clear thing is that both GB directed by national agencies and by local agencies were increasing rapidly over the last 2 years and they were approximately at the same rate.3.3.2. Most certificated in design stageChinese Three-Star Evaluation System includes design stage labels and operation stage labels. The number of GB in the design stage is 331 while 22 in the operation stage. The ratios of green building number in design stage to that in operation stage in 2009, 2010 and 2011, are 9.0, 9.5 and 19.0 respectively (there is no GB for operation stage in 2008) (Ye, Cheng, Wang, Lin, & Ren, 2013). We can easily find that most GB are certificated in design stage (CABR, 2013). Why not these buildings take part in evaluation in operation stage? After a survey on these green buildings, we find that most of them cannot achieve green standard in the operation stage due to the lack of mature technology and skilled worker.
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