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街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密2.rar

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    街道 设计 大城市 城镇 秘密
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    街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 1 -大 连 理 工 大 学 本 科 外 文 翻 译街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密Street Design—the Secret to Great Cities and towns街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 2 -学 部(院): 建筑与艺术学院 专 业: 艺术设计(环境艺术设计) 学 生 姓 名: 徐子珺 学 号: 201257021 指 导 教 师: 林墨飞 完 成 日 期: 2016 年 3 月 25 日 大连理工大学Dalian University of Technology街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 3 -街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 1 -Les Rambles, Barcelona, Spain. See Figure 2.48街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 2 -Chapter 2 Historic streetsBeyond Functional Classification : A Reintroduction to Eleven Essential Street TypesFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION’S meager catalog of street types—arterial, collector, and local roads—is insuffcient to produce walkable towns, cities, and neighborhoods. it is urgent that engineers and urban designers establish and promote a richer menu of choices.History shows that sorting streets according to their form, rather than their level of service and Functional classifcation, will help establish a common language for street design. History shows that sorting streets according to their form, rather than their Level of Service and Functional Classification, will help establish a common language for street design. History also teaches that expanding the range of choices increases the number of possible designs—that human ingenuity, once unleashed, will offer up customized street solutions in response to the needs of each place.This chapter reintroduces eleven essential street types with case studies and commentary to explain how each type fits into a larger urban system. A goal now should be to use consistent terminology for the items on this bigger and more complex menu to rebuild our civilization’s capacity for making great streets, despite ongoing resistance from some engineers and transportation planners. Happily, it is hard to argue against success and successful examples.街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 3 -Figure 2.1: Multiway Boulevard and Multiway 街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 4 -Figure 2.2: Boulevard and venue. Figure 2.3: promenade and Rambla. 街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 5 -Beyond Functional classification :a reintroductuon to eleven essential street typesFigure 2.4: Main street. Figure 2.5: downtown street. Figure 2.6: neighborhood street. Figure 2.7: yield street. 街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 6 -The historic street types we discuss are:■ Boulevard & Multiway Boulevard■ Avenue & Multiway Avenue■ Promenade & Rambla■ Main Street■ Downtown Street■ Neighborhood Street■ Yield Street■ Garden Street■ Pedestrian Street■ Pedestrian Passage & Step Street■ ParkwayAVENUES & BOULEVARDSBefore the era of the automobile, broad streets symbolized progress, prosperity, and public order for their cities.Society occasionally excelled at producing wide streets that served many purposes, not the least of which was instilling civic pride. For the last fifty or sixty years, however, traffic engineers have focused almost exclusively on increasing traffic flow—often by widening traffic lanes, increasing the number of lanes, and eliminating parking and sidewalks. As a result, America now finds itself with too many wide, dangerous streets, few of which can be said to boost civic pride. To fight the excessive widths, traffic calmers working in suburban conditions the last ten years or so have focused on gimmicks like painted“Road Diets.” When a street is given the road-diet treatment, highway-scale markings are painted on the street to “narrow” the road, sometimes with space allocated for parking and bicycle lanes. These superscaled stripings are meant for cars and may, in fact, help slow motorists somewhat. Road diets do nothing to supply a human scale for the pedestrian, however, and they rarely do much to make the road more comfortable for walkers: road diets are like tightening your belt a notch instead of losing weight.1 A more meaningful, enduring kind of road diet changes the nature of the street from a “traffic facility” or vehicular street to a place. This dilemma in part explains why avenues and boulevards, two of our widest street 街道设计—大城市和城镇的秘密- 7 -types, have recently become a hot topic in street design: when designers are faced with retrofitting supersized streets, historic avenues and boulevards can suggest a range of previously successful solutions. Boulevards and avenues are wide, tree-lined streets that come in a variety of forms. The earliest and best examples are in Paris, where by definition an avenue is visually terminated at one or both ends, while a boulevard is a through street. The Lexicon of the New Urbanism continues that useful distinction, which we endorse, but it should be noted that there are a few streets in Paris called avenues that are not terminated. An example is the avenue de New York, a short street that is actually part of a long continuous boulevard along the Seine that regularly changes name. In America, we frequently don’t make this semantic distinction between avenues and boulevards. The north-south streets in the New York Commissioners’ Plan of 1811 that were called avenues are actually boulevards. “Boulevard” and “avenue” are both French words. Paris’s boulevards and avenues do the jobs assigned to them well and are among the most beautiful in the world. The success of these streets stems in part from their adherence to principles that have been a part of French design for centuries. We think of them as having been built by Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann for the Emperor Napoleon III in the nineteenth century—and many of them were—but a number were built much earlier, during the reigns of Louis XIII and Louis XIV.The long French tradition of formal, tree-lined roads goes back to planted allées in grand French gardens like the ones at Vaux-le-Vicomte and the Sun King’s palace in Versailles. That tradition also led to the design of rural allées that extended from the ramparts of Paris outinto the countryside: these avenues (“approaches”) are the forerunners of the urban allées within the city walls. Trees were also planted on the tops of the old city walls, in double rows that followed the path of the ramparts as they angled around the city. The original French meaning of boulevard is “top of the bulwark.”As Paris grew up around the rural roads and ramparts, rows of trees in pairs on each side of the avenues and boulevards became the custom. As one still sees in French parks, the trees were planted in regular geometric patterns, carefully proportioned. Typically, four trees would form a perfect square (1-to-1), but sometimes the ratio of width to length would be 1-to-1½or 1-to-2. All of these dimensions are pleasing. Sadly, thousands of the country’s trees have been eliminated in recent years to widen roads. The French traffic engineers didn’t cut them all down, as their American counterparts frequently did (leaving Elm and Maple Streets with no elms or maples), but by cutting large gaps in the allées they did diminish the beauty of the streets—particularly for the pedestrian.
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