当前位置:首页>> >>


结构发明表达设计理念.rar

收藏

资源目录
    文档预览:
    编号:20181101170115135    类型:共享资源    大小:1.29MB    格式:RAR    上传时间:2019-04-07
    尺寸:148x200像素    分辨率:72dpi   颜色:RGB    工具:   
    15
    金币
    关 键 词:
    结构 发明 表达 设计 理念
    资源描述:
    结构发明表达设计理念瑞士建筑师瓦勒里欧·奥加提的各种设计理念成型于其位于阿尔卑斯山中部的弗利姆斯的建筑工作室之中。工作室的位置可能与您想像中的那些蜚声国际的建筑事务所的所在地相去甚远。但是,弗利姆斯并不是乡村,而是一个在当地颇受城市人群青睐的冬季旅游滑雪胜地。这里的生活与工作远离不断快速变化的建筑,如此造就了一种奥加提式的建筑品质。在这里,他可以集中精力以一种独立的方式设计风格独特的建筑。在他的风格中,尤其强调的是结构和空间的本质。奥加提的设计成果通常会让人们感到惊讶。他的建筑向人们展示的是一种彻底不同于那些常见的现代建筑风格的外形。我记得当我在帕斯派尔斯中学(1998)竣工之后不久前往参观时,这座建筑表现出的那种既彻底、激进又非常自然的现场格调以及内部空间让人意想不到的复杂程度让我大吃一惊(图1) 。同时,这座学校建筑也在成长、变老,但她的材料质地与表现形式使她老得有风韵,十分沧桑。这仿佛就是一座永恒的建筑。这所学校给人一种不言而喻而且极具信服力的存在感。这所中学与田野上的一所已建成的小学隔街相望。几乎如巨石一般的外部体积之下采用了如同果壳一般的混凝土外壳包覆着令人惊叹的内部空间。通过对两处对角线端头的拉伸,奥加提将平行轴转化成一种稍有不同的透视景观(图2) 。以外观而言,这座建筑依然为长方形,但建筑内部则能够给人一种动态的感受。没人能想到在如此简约的体积中会有如此迷人的空间构造。来自于外面原野上的光线映入十字形的走廊,为这座混凝土建筑增添了四季的颜色。教室本身采用了木质覆面材料,给人传统而温暖的感觉,从而给学生带来了一种更加个人化的空间。建筑内部则是光线、颜色、空间和材质融合交汇的大舞台。设计理念为支柱瓦勒里欧·奥加提将自己视为其建筑思想的作者,不断寻找“如何实现”这一问题的答案。每一个项目都采用单独的方法予以解决,每一种设计方案都独具特色,从不千篇一图 1图 2律。在设计草图和模型的时候,即如他所述,他的设计过程从不仅仅依靠“情绪化”的草图和模型。他认为,寻找设计方案是一种思考和发明的过程,需要对所给的任务进行讨论,从而理解任务并找出设计方案。奥加提的设计建立在针对所给任务的精确分析之上。从这种过程中产生的理念则是其设计工作的基石。在理念尚未明确之前,他不会开始草图、设计或建模工作。对于奥加提而言,建筑理念不仅仅是一般的功能性的组织设计图。建筑理念并非是针对某一建筑结构或特定地点风格的解释说明,如在帕斯派尔斯中学的项目里,他设计了一个完全独立的体量(图 3) 。建筑理念的追求更广泛因而更加抽象。如今的建筑师需要尽可能与各类专家合作,才能满足今日建筑的一切要求。奥加提却反其道而行之。他并不相信我们社会中的这种专业化做法。建筑必须比那些专门的技术方案要存在得更久一些。在这些设计中,奥加提致力于解决项目中的多方面的问题。否则专家将会全盘接手项目,某些专业化的因素可能会改变设计的方向,而且这类改变可能并不符合建筑的设计初衷。对于瓦勒里欧·奥加提而言,建筑师掌控整个设计阶段尤为重要的,即如过去当建筑结构偏离其设计理念时建筑师的做法一样。长期而言,按照这种办法修建的建筑在可持续性方面的表现更佳。贯穿结构的空间构架理念按照瓦勒里欧·奥加提的说法,这种理念在某种程度上就是建筑的 D N A 建筑结构是一种非常重要的形成和表达基本设计理念的要素。奥加提通过结构元素以及封闭空间向人们展示了如何转化这种理念。为了将设计理念精确转化成建筑物,瓦勒里欧·奥加提与结构工程师帕特里克·加特曼展开了合作。通过这种密切的合作,他还可以加入地震防护或风力之类的解决方案,并在建筑设计中融入此类办法,比如,新建的卢塞恩大学项目(2003) 。这种结构不仅能够支撑建筑,而且也为建筑本身增添了不少活力的元素。上述这座旋转风格的建筑中的扭曲结构并非出自于美学方面的设计需要,而是作为一种在建筑方面慎重考虑得出的结果,是一种解决所有必要问题的设计理念。实际上,采用这些办法是一种非常经济而且有效的建筑表现方式。在此,甚至将材料的使用量降至了最低。在位于洛桑的洛桑联邦理工大学学习中心(2004)的项目上,对结构进一步地关注体现得更明显。这种创造出来的空间甚至比框体式的结构更加鲜明直接。如果建筑具有巨大厚重的部件(图 7) ,其尺寸大小与开口位置有关,建筑则会按照其结构限制进行设计。如果有人从该建筑上抽出一块,该建筑就会倒塌。此类建筑体系也应用于商业项目中,如苏黎世的宾茨办公楼(2001,图 6)或利马模块化的塔楼(2010 -) 。奥加提的建筑的结构特性设计过程和混凝土的使用参考了二战后的现代建筑。空间结构的构思源自于勒·柯布西耶大师的后期作品,可以从拉图雷修道院(1956- 1960)或昌迪加尔的政府大楼(1952 - 1959)上找到这些痕迹。可以将这种颠覆性的概念设计办法以及空间的结构构思理解为联系勒·柯布西耶大师后期作品与奥加提作品的一道桥梁。这在帕斯博学校之类的早期作品之中尤为明显,奥加提喜欢使用几何风格并采用这样一种激图 3进的方式来规划空间,与路易斯·康的作品风格以及其他的粗野主义的建筑风格十分相似。即如康在盐湖城学院(1959 - 1965)创造了结构方案之后将整个理念运用于整座建筑之中。奥加提的作品与现代主义建筑作品的根本区别在于,他使用了先进的建筑结构技术,减少了结构的所需材料,以一种雕塑式的“细分派”而非“组合派”的方式。空间的双重动力对于瓦勒里欧·奥加提而言,其建筑物作品在外观上更具神秘性,观众只能通过思考才能理解所见的一切。建筑物应当始终保持某种神秘性。在理想的情况下,观众必须亲身体验这座建筑并经思考之后才能更加深入地理解这种设计理念。思考可以赋予建筑物多种可能的解释以及思想上的深度。在人们的眼中,由奥加提设计的位于策尔内茨的瑞士国家公园的游客中心就是两座简单、轮廓清晰、彼此相连的立方体建筑。但是,当你走到楼梯时,如果只有一条路才是正确的,你可能会无法确定应该走哪一条路(图 4) 。这种让人烦恼的体验可以让这座建筑更具深度。这座建筑不仅仅是一堆房间的组合(图 5) ,每位参观者都不得不在这座建筑中找路,从而营造出一座自己头脑中的博物馆。当人们参观位于兰德夸特的普兰塔霍夫礼堂(2008 -2010)时,很难立刻明白这座建筑物外部那突兀的横梁的用途。当走入礼堂之后,人们还是不能理解其确切的用途。只有人们在心中把这两幅画面联系到一起并对其所见思索一番之后,才会觉得这开始变得有趣起来。观众可能会意识到内部的混凝土结构是一种混合的结构,一部分从天花板上悬垂下来,另一粗大的部分则伫立于地面。内外之间表现出来的这种张力赋予这座建筑一种更丰富的空间构造。与历史建筑知识对话瓦勒里欧·奥加提收集了很多图片,按他的说法,这些就是图像自传材料。这些图片无声地向人揭示了那些瓦勒里欧·奥加提的兴趣,以及他认为对于其建筑作品而言非常重要的素材。比如,格劳宾登的传统石建筑就对其产生了影响。这些石建筑每天都会出现在奥加提的生活之中。然而,他的一些建筑作品也体现了这种传统建筑的古老风姿。但是,人们不应当将其作品误归为复古流派。这只是从现存的价值和空间复杂性中学习到的一些知识而已。这种类似的情况可以在苏格兰塔楼中找到痕迹。这些建筑物具有非常紧凑的结构,但内部空间却十分宽敞。这些房屋的窗户位置和内部的构成形成了一种复杂的封闭空图 4图 5间结构。在位于沙兰斯的巴勒蒂乐音乐工作室(2007)中,奥加提所采用的完全不同的方式借鉴了传统的空间条件,在庭院和分隔的音乐工作室中都采用了创新的近乎圆形的开口。内庭和壳状的混凝土立面都是新颖的发明。开放式的中庭可以作为花园或者音乐会的舞台使用。朝向天空的近乎圆形的中庭开口是一个以设计为准的决定,而不是以功能为准。但奥加提的建筑作品的基础并不仅仅是传统或本地的建筑。朱利亚诺·达·桑迦洛(1489 - 1539)设计的位于佛罗伦萨的斯特罗齐宫那令人印象深刻的城市面貌正是基于其外观设计。在奥加提的一些作品中,比如,帕斯派尔斯中学和彼尔姆博物馆(2008) ,立面的实质性外观决定了建筑物的外形体量。这种研究提出了建筑的一致性方面的问题。人们还可以从奥加提收集的图像自传材料中找到安德烈·帕拉蒂奥(1567 - 1991)设计圆厅别墅的平面图。这座别墅不仅是一栋位于山顶的房屋,而且还代表了一种融合周围环境与生活方式的理念。这是几乎能够完整反映建筑物一生的标志。瓦勒里欧·奥加提的建筑作品追求的正是这种不可分离的一致性。表现力和涵义甚至对那些受限的建筑任务而言,奥加提也能从根本上给出解决方案,例如,新建的位于库尔的格劳宾登州议会大厦的正门入口(2009,图 6) 。几年前,由于空间不足,议会搬到改造后的兵工厂。这座建筑同时也是当地的州剧院所在地。议会大厦的入口开在大道一侧的侧墙之上。由于乘坐轮椅者无法进入正门入口,并且也未提供遮蔽风雨的设施,于是管理部门采用竞标的方式征集入口的新建方案。瓦勒里欧·奥加提为此重要的办公楼提出了能够解决此类问题的唯一方案,从而成功夺标。该方案包含一条斜坡、一套半遮蔽功能的设施、一根支柱、以及一个屋顶,但未与兵工厂中的大楼相连。这种用料极少又能完成任务的做法,凭借其简洁以及纪念碑一般不朽的风格让人惊叹。这种将州议会大厦安置于未曾使用的兵工厂的做法以及从侧面进入的设计,是一种超现实主义的代表性的奥加提式建筑方案。这是一种用以解决特定问题的创新式的建筑,采用了非标准但却适应需要的方案。采用非常规的形式、形象和类型的做法让人捉摸、思考从而激发观者。建筑是今日的一种折射位于阿联酋的医疗中心(2005,图 7)或彼尔姆的博物馆都大规模地采用了这种结构构思。这些建筑物的规模大小由于医院的功能需求而决定。对于健康中心而言,其医院部图 6图 7分需要采用比其他地方更加经济的空间利用方式,而彼尔姆的博物馆则需要兼顾功能性和展览的的。除了瓦勒里欧·奥加提之外,其他的一些建筑师也在致力于这些方面的研究。S A N A A 的妹岛和世和西泽立卫的建筑作品中的抽象元素、戴卫·奇普菲尔德的实质存在性或克里斯蒂安·凯雷斯的基本结构研究,都向世人展示了瓦勒里欧·奥加提的工作也是大量关于建筑可能发展方向的基础研究的一部分。奥加提最杰出的贡献在于他所带来的那种暧昧模糊的复杂性。他的建筑作品在建筑表现方面存在着多种的解释,但理念却十分明确,这种理念在约束建筑的复杂度,同时也使其建筑作品方正实用。IDEA EXPRESSED BY STRUCTURAL INVENTIONThe Swiss architect Valerio Olgiati develops ideas in his architecture studio in the village of Flims in the middle of the Alps. The location might seem cut off from where you would normally expect such an international operating architecture office. But Flims is not rural and is very much a local skiing centre for the urban winter tourism. Living and working apart from the fast changing architecture fashions a quality in Olgiati's constructions. It allows him to concentrate in an independent way and develop unique architecture. Unique in the sense that Olgiati emphasizes structural and spatial essence.The result of Olgiati's design process is often astonishing for the viewer. The radical physicality that his buildings depict is different to what we are used to seeing in contemporary architecture. I remember, when I visited his Secondary School in Paspels (1998) a short time after completion, I was amazed by the radical yet very natural attitude of the building in situ and the inner spatial yet unexpected complexity (Fig.1). In the meantime this school building has aged in its material texture and formal expression exceedingly well. It is a timeless architecture. The building convinces the viewer with its almost self-evident presence. The secondary school building stands on the other side of the street to the existing primary school, in a field. The outer almost monolithic volume shelters the surprising inner spatial by its nutshell concrete form. By stretching the layout on two diagonal ends Olgiati shifted the parallel axis to a slightly different perspective (Fig.2). From outside the building still looks rectangular but inside one experiences the rooms as dynamic. One never expects such a compelling space inside a reduced volume. Outside light from the field reflects into the cross-form corridors, thus bringing seasonal colours into the concrete volume. The classrooms themselves are covered in wood to reflect something traditional and warm and so gives the pupils a personal place. The inside is a rich play of light, colour, space, and materiality.The design idea as a backboneValerio Olgiati sees himself like an author in his architectural thinking, searching for the “how“. Every task is solved in an individual way and requires its own solution. He does not work with an“emotional design process“ of sketching and model making, as he calls it. But rather, solution finding is a process of thinking and inventing with discussions to understand the given task and develop the design idea. Olgiati aims to design based on a precise analysis of the given task. The idea, resulting out of this process is the backbone of his architecture. Until the idea is clear he does not work with sketches, plans or models.For Olgiati the building idea needs to be much more than a mere functional organisational scheme. It is not about the construction or site-specific interpretation of a genius locus, as in the School in Paspels he designed an independent volume (Fig.3). The idea aims to be more universal and therefore more abstract. Architects today need to work as close as possible with all kinds of specialists to fulfil today's necessities. Olgiati goes the other way around. He does not believe in the specialisation in our society. The building has to last longer than specific technical solutions. With his design idea Olgiati aims to solve more than one aspect of the project. Otherwise specialists will take over the project and such particular specific interests will change the design direction, and in architecture this may not necessarily be in relevant directions. For Valerio Olgiati it is important that the architect remains in charge of the design process, as the architect in the past always was when building structures out of ideas. In the long run such resulting architecture will be more sustainable.Spatial framing of the idea through structureThe idea is somehow the “DNA“ of architecture, as Valerio Olgiati said. A very important element for the formulation and expression of the basic design idea is the architecture structure. Olgiati demonstrates the transformation of an idea through the structural elements, together with the negative volume of space. To transfer the design idea into a precise architecture Olgiati works with the structural engineer Patrick Gartmann. In this close collaboration he is able to also include questions of earthquake protection or wind force and develop a structure such as in the project for the new University building Luzern (2003). Here the structure is not just supporting the building but is a dynamic in itself. The twist in the rotated building volume does not come from an aesthetical decision but out of the structural idea based on the commitment to solve all necessary questions as a tectonically thought-out structure. It is indeed an economical effective way to use such forces to give the building its specific expression. Hereby one even limits the use of material to a minimum.Further emphasis on structure can be observed in the project for the Learning Centre for the EPFL in Lausanne (2004). The invented space is spatially an even more explicit skeletonal organism. Even, if the building somehow retains massive parts (Fig.7), set in relation to its dimensions and the placement of openings, the building has been designed to its structural limits. If one would remove one element of the structure the building would collapse. This building system has also been applied in commercial jobs as the Binz office building in Zurich (2001, Fig. 6) or the modular tower as in Lima (2010 - ).The process of designing properties of structure and the use of concrete in Olgiati's architecture is in reference to modernist architecture after the Second World War. The structural framing of space leads to an architecture formulated by the late Le Corbusier as we can find in the Monastery of La Tourette (1956 - 1960) or in his government buildings in Chandigarh (1952 -1959). Such a radical conceptual design approach and structural framing of space can be understood as a connection between the architecture of the late Le Corbusier and Olgiati. Especially in earlier work as the school building in Paspels, Olgiati likes to work with the geometry and define space in such a radical way, that he is very close to the architecture of Louis Kahn and other exponents of Brutalism architecture. Especially Kahn was able to create structural solutions with an overall idea binding the volumes together as in the Salt Lake Institute (1959 - 1965). The fundamental difference between Olgiatis work and modernist buildings lies in his use of advanced building structure techniques to reduce the materiality of the structure not in an additional way but as a sculptural organism.Dual dynamics of spaceFor Valerio Olgiati it is important, that a building is more enigmatic from the outside and for one to understand what one sees only through thinking. The architecture should always keep a certain mystery how it really functions. Ideally the viewer has to experience and think about the building to get a deeper understanding of the idea. This kind of thinking gives the building a variety of possible interpretations and thus intellectual depth.One perceives Olgiati's Visitor Centre for the Swiss National Park in Zernez (2002-2008) as a simple and clear-cut building, two connecting cubic volumes with windows. But when one arrives at the staircase one is not sure which way to go, and if only one is the right way (Fig.4). This irritation helps to make the building richer in experience. This building is not just a sequence of rooms (Fig.5). Every visitor has to search his own way through the building and creates his own museum in his mind.When one visits the Plantahof Auditorium in Landquart (2008-2010), one does not immediately understand the use of the beam sticking out of the building volume on the outside. When one steps inside it is not clear either what exactly is happening. It starts to be more interesting when one connects the two images in mind and thinks about what one sees. Then one might realise that the inner concrete structure is a hybrid one partly hanging from the ceiling, partly a massive one standing on the ground. This tension between the outside and the inside gives the architecture a spatial richness.In dialogue with historical architecture knowledgeValerio Olgiati has a collection of images, which he calls iconographic autobiography. This collection provides non-verbal hints to what interests Valerio Olgiati and to what he thinks could have an importance for his architecture. An influence for example is the traditional stone architecture of Graubünden. These stone buildings have a daily presence in Olgiati's life. Nevertheless, the archaic presence of traditional buildings shows up in several of his buildings. But one should not misunderstand his buildings as archaic. It is more a learning from existing values and spatial complexity. Another similar discourse can be found in the Scottish tower houses.These buildings have a very compact form but the inside is extremely rich spatially. The niches for the windows and the inner composition of these houses formulate a complex spatial negative volume. In the studio of the musician Bardill in Scharans (2007) Olgiati refers to traditional spatial conditions in a completely different way, with more of a rational invention of the almost circular opening in both the courtyard as well as in the separate music studio. The inner courtyard and the shell like concrete facade are new inventions. The open atrium can be used as a garden as well as a stage for concerts. The almost circular opening of the atrium towards the sky is a design decision, not a functional one.But it is not just traditional or vernacular buildings, which form a basis for Olgiati's architecture. The impressive urban presence of Palazzo Strozzi in Florence by Giuliano da Sangallo (1489-1539) is very much based on the development of its facade. In several of Olgiati's buildings, as the School in Paspels and even the Museum in Perm (2008) the physical facade presence of dominates building volume.This research leads to the question of unity in architecture. In Olgiati's collection of the iconographic autobiography one finds a plan of the Villa Rotonda by Andrea Palladio (1567-1591) as well. This villa is not just a house on a hilltop, it represents an idea of lifestyle with surroundings, and life. It is almost an icon for an architecture where an entire life is reflected. In Valerio Olgiati's architecture such inseparable unity is aimed for.Expression and meaningEv
    展开阅读全文
    1
      金牌文库所有资源均是用户自行上传分享,仅供网友学习交流,未经上传用户书面授权,请勿作他用。
    0条评论

    还可以输入200字符

    暂无评论,赶快抢占沙发吧。

    关于本文
    本文标题:结构发明表达设计理念.rar
    链接地址:http://www.gold-doc.com/p-288970.html
    关于我们 - 网站声明 - 网站地图 - 资源地图 - 友情链接 - 网站客服客服 - 联系我们
    copyright@ 2014-2018 金牌文库网站版权所有
    经营许可证编号:浙ICP备15046084号-3
    收起
    展开