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    大 连 理 工 大 学 本 科 外 文 翻 译基础室内设计——展览设计Basics Interior design—Exhibition Design学 部(院): 建筑与艺术学院 0 专 业: 艺术设计(环境艺术设计) 学 生 姓 名: 王萌萌 0 学 号: 201257052 0 指 导 教 师: 都伟 0 完 成 日 期: 2016.4.12 0 大连理工大学Dalian University of TechnologyBasics Interior design—Exhibition DesignThe aim of this book is to provide a better understanding of the complexity of exhibition design, by exploring the role of the exhibition designer as a creative practitioner serving a multi-billion dollar global industry.Symbiotic and experimental in nature,exhibition design overlaps a wide range of design subjects in order to communicate clearly. In terms of spatial intervention, interior design is its closest relative. Exhibition design is often a reflection or, indeed, driver of contemporary fashion and style. It is familiar with interior and furniture scale and is concerned with space, form and surface. However, unlike interior design, exhibitions can,when required, stand independently from architecture and see spatial relationships predominantly in terms of the opportunities they provide for communication and display. Exhibition designers need to be curious about everything, not least the idea of theming, which is often seen as the interpretive ‘hook’ on which to hang a story. The theatrical opportunitiesborrowed from multimedia, sound,lighting design and a range of other exhibition technologies, create interesting opportunities for storytelling through performance. The combination of image and text through large-scale graphic design remains a key method of communication to an increasingly technologically and visually literate audience. The easy wealth of access to vast amounts of information have helped to transform the traditional ‘graphic panel’ hanging on the wall, to interactive, multi-layered and often multi-sensory touch-screen experiences with the capacity to navigate the visitor through complex layers of information.One of the most stimulating challenges for the exhibition designer is the exploration and experimentation involved in the search for the most appropriate communication media within engaging interactive environments.Exhibition DesignExhibitions are for people, so the exhibition designer needs to have an understanding of the physical, emotional and intellectual needs of a range of very different audiences in order to deliver environments that are accessible,educational and enjoyable. In order to understand how to communicate with an audience, the designer must have an understanding of how audiences learn and ways in which to facilitate this learning.The design process begins with a thorough understanding of the constraints and opportunities offered by the brief. Once research has been completed and the storyline identified, the process of developing the exhibition within the space can begin.The term ‘exhibition’ has multiple definitions. For simplicity, the discussions that follow will use the umbrella terms ‘commercial’ or ‘cultural’ when describing a range of exhibition projects. Although most types of exhibition will fall loosely into one of these two categories, there will be an inevitable blurring of the boundaries between them. The Exhibition Design ProcessAs this diagram shows, through a constant process of feedback and evaluation, the exhibition designer will encounter six stages in the design process: analysis, idea, development, proposal,detail, installation. This approach was inspired by a travelling exhibition of Leonardo da Vinci’s sketchbooks. The simple but engaging exhibition used a series of interpretive animations to bring the sketchbooks to life。The ‘commercial’ will broadly consider exhibitions that are telling the story of a brand or are predominantly engaged with issues relating to commerce. They include commercial exhibition stands, brand experiences, theme parks, themed retail interiors and leisure attractions.Many commercial exhibitions will charge entry or are only open to audiences whose work is related to commerce. Whilst expo is also concerned with the promotion and better understanding of cultural relations, their particular historical engagement with trade means that in this text they will be considered under the commercial banner. Museums, galleries, historic sites, landscape and heritage attractions will be broadly considered under the term‘cultural’ exhibitions. These types of exhibition relate to the collective material culture of societies, whether this is a significant collection of art, a historic house, a palace or site, or a way finding visitor centre for a natural landscape. Here the activity of storytelling will most often engage with history, conservation, preservation and education.The exhibition design process The first step in becoming an exhibition designer is to develop anunderstanding of the design process. The diagram opposite has simplified this complicated process to a linear pathway that considers how a project moves from analysis to installation.Exhibitions are designed for people.The figure in the diagram is a useful reminder that throughout the design process we should ask the question; what will be the nature of the physical and emotional relationship between the exhibition and its audience? The circle represents all that is already known about the project; the client, the organisation, the site, a body of research that will create a story. The square represents the dialogue between the audience and the exhibition space.The boundaries between analysis and concept design development are fluid and require constant feedback or return loops; testing and re-testing of ideas. Slowly the design will evolve to a pointwhere a realistic proposal emerges for presentation to the client. Following input from the client team, the designer can begin to engage with the detail design process and the technical requirements of tendering. Installation forms the beginning of the end of the process. At each stage of the project there will be critical feedback, which at the end of the project takes the form of reflection on the whole in order to inform future projects.The role of the exhibition designerThe specialist role of the exhibition designer is to create a three-dimensional environmentthat tells a story. This may be about a collection, a brand or simply an idea. Exhibition designers use a range of media and technologies, often borrowed from other disciplines, in order to effectively communicate messages in space.The organised creativeAs in other creative areas, exhibition designers need to be highly computer literate and require a varied two- and three-dimensional digital and analogue skills set. However, it is the ambition to generate clear explanations to exhibition audiences, coupled with a focus on interior communicative content, which makes the exhibition designer distinct from designers in other disciplines. The client is interested in their specialist expertise to create an exhibition according to an agreed set of communication requirements. It is the responsibility of the designer to identify, clarify and communicate these needs within the creative team. As professional practitioners, exhibition designers need to work to deadlines, manage budgets, have an understanding of legal, access and sustainability issues, and possess a range of design, management and interpersonal skills that are pivotal to the creative team and influence the smooth running of a design project. ROWING GALLERY, RIVER AND ROWING MUSEUMHenley-on-Thames, UKD E S I G N E R LAND DESIGN STUDIOD AT E 1998The complex nature of many exhibition projects requires the designer to be an excellent communicator, negotiating not only with the client but often with a team of creative specialists. For their design of the galleries of the privately funded River and Rowing Museum, Land Design Studio had to work closely with architects,researchers, graphic designers and specialist contractors.Analysing the briefAll design projects begin with a thorough analysis of the ‘project brief’.This will form the agreed foundation on which to build the project. As all projects are unique, briefs vary in detail and content according to the project’s nature and scale, as well as the experience of the client. In the fast turnover of the commercial world, a brand manager may write briefs on a regular basis, but for the client of a new museum the project may be a ‘one-off’. It is only through clear dialogue, to tease out detailed aims and expectations, that the brief can be fully understood. Essential initial questions include:What is the nature and purpose of the project?What is the scale of the project?Who is the target audience and what are their needs?Who is the client team?What is the context and position of the site? What is the budget?What is the timescale?The answers to these questions will generate a dialogue with the client. For example, they may establish the specific requirements relating to the brand or collection. The brief will also dictate the specific expertise that will be required in the design team from the start. Following discussion, negotiation and alteration, the brief will become the basis on which a contract is drawn up.Once the project starts, the brief will become the designer’s constant companion and point of reference. It is the key document that links the designer with the client and is the foundation of this relationship.Exhibition spaceWorking with a siteFor an exhibition within an existing building there will be many practical questions that need to be asked. Is the building listed and if so what are the restrictions regarding intervention in the space? Is there sufficient access to bring objects and exhibits into the space? Is the floor strong enough to receive exhibits or will it need to be reinforced to support heavy objects? Is there access to services? How will media run? Does space need to be made within the exhibit for storing support equipment for exhibition media? Are there existing obstacles to consider – columns or changes in level,for example? Conventional planting and landscape maintenance often require irrigation and chemicals. Sustainable practices minimize the use of irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides and can prevent soil erosion and sedimentation. Erosion from precipitation and wind causes degradation of property as well as sedimentation of local water bodies, and building sites can be major sources of sediment. Loss of nutrients, soil compaction, and decreased biodiversity of soil organisms can severely limit the vitality of landscaping. Sedimentation increases turbidity levels, which degrades aquatic habitats, and the buildup of sediments in stream channels can lessen flow capacity, increasing the possibility of flooding. Sustainable landscaping involves using or restoring native and adapted plants, which require less irrigation and maintenance and fewer or no applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides compared with most introduced species. Reference to existing plans, elevations and sections will give the designer an understanding of the scale, the available floor space, window and other heights, services, entrances and exits, mezzanine levels, internal stairs, lifts and a host of other considerations that will influence the design right from the start. If technical drawings do not exist, the design team may need to carry out an accurate site survey, measuring the sizes and key components of all the related structuresDesigning for peopleWhether an exhibition is culturally or commercially focused, the primary role of the exhibition designer is to create environments within which communication with an audience can take place.Who is the audience?Audience analysis will start by questioning the nature of the audience.Is the exhibition expected to attract predominantly individuals, couples, families, national or international tourists or subject specialists and educational groups that may include school children or a combination of the above? Will there need to be special consideration of visitors’ age, gender, race or physical and emotional ability? Will visitors be attending in their leisure time, or as part of their work?Will the exhibition aim to appeal to a wide audience, or will it focus on a specific group?Families will need spaces that can facilitate small groups of people hoping for a collaborative experience. They will require a hierarchy of information that is of interest to a range of age groups and learning abilities. Children’s exhibitions will require specialist design decisions regarding height, size, colour and use of materials. The age group will dictate their literacy levels and will influence how they engage intellectually. Children require the use of appropriate language,font choices and images, and tend to respond positively to interactive environments. In contrast, a specialist audience will require a greater depth of information,supported by additional written material that can be accessed as a book or online.For international audiences, all the above parameters apply, with additional considerations relating to culture and language. Measuring audiencesAs well as their cultural and emotional needs, audiences come in a range of different shapes and sizes.Anthropometric study provides us with knowledge about the dimensions of the human body and what it means to be ‘average’. This has a direct relationship with the measurements of all exhibition elements, from furniture to graphics. Ergonomics is the study of human interaction with space and how the design of space influences how people operate in it.Can visitors pass comfortably? Are there clear safe routes to fire exits? Exhibition spaces are never passive. When visitors are invited to physically interact with exhibition space they become performers within it. The designer needs to ensure that the design can accommodate the physicality of this performance. A combined understanding of anthropometrics and ergonomics helps the designer to create comfortable and user-friendly environments.As areas developed and urbanized, surface permeability is reduced, which in turn increases the runoff transported via pipes and sewers to streams, rivers, lakes, bays, and oceans.Storm water runoff harms water quality, aquatic life, and recreation opportunities in receiving waters. For instance, parking areas contribute to storm water runoff that is contaminated with oil, fuel, lubricants, combustion by-products, material from tire wear, and deicing salts. Runoff also accelerates the flow rate of waterways, causing erosion downstream and altering aquatic habitat. Effective strategies exist to control, reduce, and treat storm water runoff before it leaves the project site.As well as individual scale, designers need to consider how to manage audiences en masse. Wait times within exhibitions need considerati
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