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建筑师用模型表现的16个历史建筑.rar

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    建筑师 模型 表现 16 历史 建筑
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    广西科技大学毕业设计(论文)外文翻译课题名称 民俗文化度假酒店 学 院 土木建筑工程学院专 业 建筑学 班 级 建筑 091 学 号 200900503029 姓 名 蓝 志 伟 指导教师 陈群、唐柳丽 2014年 3 月 1 日原文:Architects use 16 historical building model performanceForeword:Building model is in the building design and urban planning, building model review of the project. It by its unique vivid show the design scheme of the dimensional effect. Therefore, many departments such as architecture, planning or exhibitions at home and abroad, model making has become an independent discipline.Architecture and environment art model between plane drawings and the actual three-dimensional space, it put the two organic together, is a kind of three-dimensional solid model, building model help design creation, can intuitively reflect the design intent, compensate for the limitations in drawing in performance. It is part of the process of designers, also belong to design a form at the same time, they are widely used in urban construction, real estate development, commercial housing sales, design, bidding and investment cooperation, etc.Keywords: building model performance technical effectThe basic characteristics of the model is to use easy to processing the materials in accordance with the architectural design pattern or design idea, made of smaller according to the proportion of the sample. Building model is used to perform in the architectural design building or the appearance of buildings and a means of spatial relations. For advanced technology, complex functions, the artistic model ling abound change of modern architecture, especially need to use the model to carry on the design creation.In the preliminary design, the scheme design phase of said working model, production can be briefly, to processing and remove. Material available sludge, cardboard and plastic, etc. In the completion of the preliminary design, can make more elaborate model ─ ─ presentation model (see photo), for design of examination and approval. Display model not only requires the proportion of the building close to the real performance, model ling, color, texture and planning of the environment, can also reveal the key building internal space of the room, indoor display and structure, structure, etc. Model of general use board, plywood, plastic, organic glass and sheet metal and other materials. Model of production to achieve performance design conception and the conception.Many ancient acclimatisations created architectural models or maquettes, often not to investigate building techniques but rather to use as gifts or place in tombs. This unusual fired clay model was discovered in the Danube valley and is thought to have been created by a people ahead of their time both artistically and technologically.Creating a physical model was the only way Filippo Brunelleschi could easily guide his craftsmen in the construction of the dome for Florence Cathedral - a model he deliberately left incomplete to ensure his control over the dome as it was built.Many models built for Florence Cathedral were for this purpose of verification and control, making sure that what was to be built had been tested beforehand. It was much later that the objectification of these models gave them a new form of beauty.Gaudi’s catenary arch models are a unique example of evocative low-tech architectural problem solving. His funicular chain and lead-shot bag experiments let gravity determine the form of a catenary arch — for Gaud the ideal structural element — which could then be photographed and inverted to gain an understanding of the forces at work.These models would sometimes be as large as 1:10 which, once photographed and traced over, would form the entire basis for the rest of the design.The Monument to the Third International, better known as Tatlin’s Tower, is one of the 20th century’s most enduring unrealized projects. The tower was to be a spiral ling ode to modernity and revolution built in iron, steel and glass that would challenge the Eiffel Tower. Wrapped in this steel spiral were geometric structures, each one rotating at different speeds. It is no wonder there were great doubts about its structural practicality let alone the cost of materials. Nonetheless, the models of Tatlin’s Tower serve as a reminder of the ambition and spirit of the age.Stockholm’s Museum of Modern Art, Moscow’s Tereshkova Gallery and the Pompidou Centre all have a model, and in 2011 the Royal Academy built a 1:40 scale model for the exhibition Re-Building Tatlin’s Tower. Each of the many representations only has two source drawings and Vladimir Tatlin’s models and notes to work from, making the construction process itself an attempt to capture the essence of the famous side elevation.One of the most sophisticated architectural models ever made in Britain, Lutyens’ unbuilt design for Liverpool Cathedral would have swamped St Paul’s. Shown at the Royal Academy in 1933 to wide acclaim, the model demonstrates in great detail the sheer ambition and scale of Lutyens’ design, of which only the crypts were ever constructed, and is now displayed at the Museum of Liverpool.This is not the only ambitious model Lutyens created; while planning an extension to Castle Drongo a full scale wooden mock-up was created, only to be blown away into the Devonshire countryside.The Japanese Metabolic architect Arata Isozaki developed his new housing structure for Tokyo in the 1960s. Like leaves on a tree, the modular housing units branch off from structural ‘trunks’. The ambitious and revolutionary ideas of the Metabolists, despite their exposure, remain largely confined to theoretical works, with drawings and models serving as the only way of depicting such radical concepts.With built examples of Metabolism like the Nakagin Capsule Tower in a state of decay, the group’s Utopian models are a reminder of the scale of their vision.Paul Andreu’s octopus inspired design for Terminal 1 at Charles de Gaulle airport - despite looking like a Death Star on legs - depicts a distorted, almost fish-eye view of the terminal.A flat concrete drum sits on top with a suspended, tangled maze of covered escalators beneath. Considering the finished building’s defects, the model becomes a fetishized version of Andreu’s vision; the depth and presence of the central core is amplified while the terminal’s seven satellite structures are seemingly omitted.Although this model may look like the work of the Japanese Metabolism, it is the work of German architect Wolfgang Daring. Without its architectural context this model could easily be mistaken for a stack of toys, but knowing that each block represents a dwelling makes it distinctly Utopian. Each pod can be detached and ‘upgraded’ in order to cater for a constantly developing society.Bedminster Fuller would have had the whole planet housed in his strong, economic geodesic domes. For Fuller, models were invaluable for prototyping domes and other inventions like the tensility sphere, both practical experiments and depictions of another world.Fuller proposed that his Spherical Tensegrity Atmospheric Research Stations (STARS) could be up to a mile in diameter and full of hot air, floating in the Earth’s atmosphere. While the Metabolists model led entire Utopian cities, Fuller felt confident enough model ling a single scalable component and leaving the rest to the imagination.Despite being a competition winner, Jørn Utzon’s design for the Sydney Opera House could originally not be built due to the roof forms being considered structurally unsound. To prove the proposal, Utzon created a simple wooden model to demonstrate the solution to engineering the ‘shells’ that would form the roof from the surface of a sphere.This basic model was all that was needed to prove that the building’s segments could be calculated, and therefore prefabricated. This low-tech solution to what appeared a complex structural problem is reminiscent of Gaudí’s catenary arch experiments, and the power of even the simplest model to reinforce and even save a design proposal.For Calvary, architecture combines all of the arts into one, and his sculptures often incite the interesting debate over whether they can be called ‘art’ as opposed to ‘architectural’ experiments. The minimal sculptures share much formal flare with his buildings, the above reminiscent of Malmo’s Turning Torso and Calvary’s stacked cube theme.As part of the BIG City exhibition in New York, Barker Ingels Group produced a 1:50 model entirely out of Lego. The project, ‘Lego Towers’, was a proposal for a mixed-use development in Copenhagen. Using modular units of four glass walls and a grass roof, Lego Towers takes the form of a sweeping, contoured urban space into which a hotel, retail and residential space is fully integrated.Ingels describes Lego as a 3D sketch tool, praising what he calls its ‘systematic creativity’. BIG’s model serves as a justification of Lego as a serious design tool, while retaining its characteristic playfulness.A commission for an exhibition at Tokyo’s Nanyodo Gallery, CJ Lim’s Dream Isle imagines London atop a sponge cake alongside two cups of tea - a purely theoretical architectural model. ‘The city is forever on the brink of the strangely familiar and the familiarly strange’, states Lim, describing his creation as ‘London’s dream’. Recognised landmarks and features are shifted and distorted atop the spongy earth and teacups, a reference to London’s history of colonial trade and the sound network created by London’s 16th century thoroughfares.Founder of Madam Studio, Adam Furman’s vivid and bizarrerie 3D printed models combine bright, psychedelic pop imagery with classical forms. The results are at times unsettling, but emblematic of a fascination with modern fabrication techniques and their effect on identity and visual exploration.Co-director of research group Saturated Space, which explores the relationship between clour and architecture, Furman’s recent residency at the Design Museum in London explored 3D printed ceramics covered with vibrant, colorful patterns.Swiss architect Peter Zumthor places great emphasis on craftsmanship and the way in which things are made, his practice rarely using sketches preferring models instead. Zumthor’s design process often makes extensive use of inhabitable large scale models, letting him verify a project’s atmospheric and material qualities.Designed to test the potential of Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), the Proto House was developed by the AA’s Design Research Lab. Using algorithms that micro-org anise printed material, the model represents a house that would be printed from nylon and based on bone structures, forming a spider web of tangled material. This is model making purely to test the limits of technologies and uncover the design possibilities they create. No longer simply experiments to verify what will be built, models now challenge the very machines that create them.A video demonstration of MIT Projects’in form dynamic shape display。While the humble architectural model still has its use and place, rapid advancements in technology have begun to challenge aspects beyond the static, physical representation of architecture. 3D printing can now create vastly complex shapes and spaces, but they remain, for the most part, static physicalist of 3D drawings.Touchable virtual reality has been in development for years and although not mainstream yet, seems tantalization close. Meanwhile in form, the dynamic shape display from MIT, suggests how physical interaction in real time with digital data is possible, eliminating the digital creation/physical reproduction cycle of 3D printing and blurring the two together. With these technologies the architectural model would become a highly accurate by-product of an entirely dynamic design process, updating in real time according to a project’s parameters.Rather than small, frozen utopias, the models of the future look set to be interactive worlds in their own right.译文:建筑师用模型表现的16个历史建筑前言:建筑模型 是建筑设计及都市规划方案中,建筑模型不可缺少的审查项目。它以其特有的形象性表现出设计方案之空间效果。因此,在国内外建筑、规划或展览等许多部门模型制作,已成为一门独立的学科。建筑及环境艺术模型介于平面图纸与实际立体空间之间,它把两者有机的联系在一起,是一种三维的立体模式,建筑模型有助于设计创作的推敲,可以直观地体现设计意图,弥补图纸在表现上的局限性。它既是设计师设计过程的一部分,同时也属于设计的一种表现形式,被广泛应用于城市建设、房地产开发、商品房销售、设计投标与招商合作等方面。关键词:建筑 模型 表现 技术 效果模型的基本特征是使用易于加工的材料依照建筑设计图样或设计构想,按缩小的比例制成的样品。建筑模型是在建筑设计中用以表现建筑物或建筑群的面貌和空间关系的一种手段。对于技术先进、功能复杂、艺术造型富于变化的现代建筑,尤其需要用模型进行设计创作。在初步设计即方案设计阶段的称工作模型,制作可简略些,以便加工和拆卸。材料可用油泥、硬纸板和塑料等。在完成初步设计后,可以制作较精致的模型──展示模型(见图) ,供审定设计方案之用。展示模型不仅要求表现建筑物接近真实的比例、造型、色彩、质感和规划的环境,还可揭示重点建筑房间的内部空间、室内陈设和结构、构造等。展示模型一般用木板、胶合板、塑料板、有机玻璃和金属薄板等材料制成。模型的制作务求达到表现设计创作的立意和构思。许多古代文明创建架构模型或设计稿,往往不是为了调查建筑技术, 而是使用作为礼物或在坟墓。这种不同寻常的解雇粘土模型在多瑙河谷被发现,被认为是由一个人提前创造的时间艺术和技术。菲利普·布鲁内莱斯基的唯一可以很容易地引导他的工匠在佛罗伦萨大教堂的圆顶的建造的方法就是创建一个物理模型 ——他故意将模型制作的不完整,
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