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    广西科技大学毕业设计(论文)外文翻译课题名称 某城市博物馆建筑方案设计 学 院 土木建筑工程学院 专 业 建筑学 班 级 建筑 092 学 号 200900503050 姓 名 湛达懂 指导教师 卢琳彬、罗锐东 年 月 日原文:Building· City· Squares(举例)Perceptible worlds, feasible worldsAuthor: Cristina BrumatCity changing is not a recent subject. Since many years, critics and planners have debated about city decline, even in a “sort of playback of urban history“. A great many and contradictory images and anticipations have characterized the last twenty years. In the Sixties the urbanization process seemed relentless and the term “megalopolis“, provided by Gottman to de-fine the new urban settlements, had soon acquired an evocative meaning of a “nearly pathological phenome-non: a cancer that is spreading throughout the world's surface“. Since the Seventies all the industrialized countries have witnessed the drop of the urban growth. This reversed tendency led many re-searchers to put forward the hypothesis of a crisis, the death of urban growth model. The decrease in the popu-lation growth affected basically the big cities, though this aspect was not given much thought. There was therefore talk of the so-called “counter-urbanization“ phenome-mon which, according to Berry is a tendency that continued throughout the twentieth century. This would lead to the creation of an “urban civilization without ci-ties“. According to the author, this tendency is to be ascribed to an attitude of individualism, the free circula-tion of people and the fear of violence afflicting the Ame-rican cities urged people to search for “safe areas“. He actually maintained that expansion and urban degrada-tion are “the product of an array of individual decisions in the framework of a tradition of privatism“. The dangers and the evils that, in the past, had been at-tributed to a rapid urbanization process began to be ascribed to the decline of big cities, with the result that the analyses and the studies carried out by different schools gradually con-firmed the urban crisis picture.The recognition of the demographic decline affecting big cities coincided with the evolution of the productive or-ganization processes optimizing space and labour Elec-tronic technology with its outstan-ding product and process innovations produced an inten-sification and dematerialization of trade, a compression of time and space; besides an overall mo-dification of personal, social, productive and spatial communications.Today's reality demonstrates that the city is far from dying or declining. The urbanization process of the ground goes beyond the city as well as the everyday crowding of cities and the worsening of environmental issues basically related to air, water and sound pollution. In order to interpret the dynamic “key of the metropoli-tan transformation“, it is still resorted to the mental categories of the past, while the decision to move to the neighbouring su-burbs is not to be meant as an escape, but as an expres-sly chosen location within the boundaries of the new ur-ban system under development.Therefore we are going through a time when the urban structure and individuals' habits, behaviours and values are changing radically. The house turns into the “core“, meant as the “intersection between family and reproduc-tive functions“; revival and mobility seem to be part of the processes through which occurs this transition. In the case of revival, there pre-vails the continuity with the past; in view of integration, the symbolism an architectural and urban design past can generate, is estimated to be useful. The mobility, vi-ceversa, views the city in terms of functions and spaces necessary to the present: the important values are those heading for change, innovation and are not concerned with the search for the symbolic spatial and historical “sense“ of the site.People living in cities suffer the pressure and the threat coming from new groups. This derives not only from the recent migration movements, but also from the invasions of city users, commuters and metropolitan consumers who use and abuse the city.The result is a reduced capability of the city to involve the individuals in getting familiar, participating and de-ciding about the city's issues and, as a consequence, its difficulty to emerge as an “object making sense“. The leading urban life style seems to be that described by Simmerl first and Wirth afterwards: unconcerned, superficial, anony-mous, with deviation and borderline phenomena affec-ting growing numbers of people.The spatial sense proposed does not always correspond to that desired or expected by citizens. The adaptation to the urban environment is basically perceptive. It is preci-sely through the analysis of perceptive phenomena, the images the individuals have of the site that it is possible to identify the needs and the aspirations for the future. The perception of a spatial organization offers planning the possibility to un-derstand these elements and the guarantee that design represents the synthesis of the environmental aspirations of the groups who make up the social structure. There does not exist a unique image of the city, each in-dividual makes a personal experience that reflects in the uniqueness of the perceptive process. Yet, to the uni-queness of this experience correspond perceptive simili-tudes experienced by individuals belonging to the same social, cultural, economic categories and with the same age. According to Gurvitch, in fact, perceiving a space means making a selection and this selection can but be related to the reference patterns which often coincide with the social spheres to which the subject of perception belongs. Stereotypes, myths, biasses, lead to the creation of similar mental charts, at times clashing with reality.There exist as many images of the city as the images of the groups who are part of it; their understanding can help planning in protecting and favouring, for instance, those elements aiding cultural integration and, hence, enabling citizens to live better .This theme of analysis, dealt with by five different di-sciplines, highlights the need to take an interdiscipli-nary approach, of the contributions given by psychology, geography, urban design, sociology, prossemic and anthropology to the analysis of the subjective relation-ship between individual and environment. We can refer to two main currents: the cognitive mapping, applied mostly by the Americans, and the espace vecu developed in France.The origins of cognitive mapping are to be attributed to the American social psychology of the Thirties even if its systematization oc-curred at a later time thanks to Downs and lttel-son, who traced back the cognitive process lea-ding to the creation of the image.It was Lynch, who taking inspiration from the Ge-stalt psychology, introduced the concept of “image of the city“. His interest was centred upon the relationship between image and physical forms: the map of the city differentiates in the mind of its inhabitants by “routes“, “borders“, “districts“, “knots“, “references“. Accor-ding to urban design, the “mental map“ is the operatio-nal instrument that allows to improve citizens' living conditions, yet, in deepening these studies, he neglected some aspects which, instead, have a major part in the formation of mental images.The author, in fact, focussed on the visual aspects of the city without keeping in mind the biographic-emotional elements, the diversity of images among individuals be-longing to different social and cultural categories and the historical dimension of the city.The subjective investigation of Lynch is opposed by Gould's spatial perception that highlights the diversity of its relevant values. He correlated and translated the data gathered in geographical maps consisting of isograms. Together with Wolpert, he la-ter on analyzed the decisional processes that develop in a spatial context: the migration flows seem to be related to the kind of information, experience and emotional aspects. In this way the biographic and cul-tural sphere were revived, while the structural aspects influencing these decisions were disregarded. Moreo-ver, the weight given to information, mass-media in determining the mental maps, seems to doubt the exi-stence of the map itself. The studies on this issue became more and more numerous and next to the notion of “mental map“, was introduced the concept of “socio-spatial scheme“ that underlines the social aspects of the city.Interesting spurs for reflection came from semiologic studies and prossemic. The latter is a discipline concer-ned with the criteria through which man structures and uses the space. The percep-tion of space results being determined by the culture and the language that exert an influence on the thought of the person who speaks and on the way reality is concei-ved of As to the pre-ordered space, Hall asserts that who was born in an European city where emphasis is placed upon the lines, the streets which bear a name, will feel lost in Japan where attention is focussed on the intersection points rather than on the streets. Yet this cognitive pre-sumption may be reversed if we privilege the notion of environment and ascribe to it the origin of linguistic dif-ferences. As reported by Bettanini, with respect to the solid state of water, most of the European langua-ges distinguish between ice and snow, whereas, in the Arctic areas we find a great many distinctions between different types of ice and snow. The theory of the cultu-ral relativity is thus reversed and leads to the relativity of the various environments and spaces. There arc, then, studies that intend to analyze the spatial experience as dccodification of environmental codes ori-ginated spontaneously or created by leading groups as well as the“espace vecu“current, which intends to be concerned with the physical, subjective space of everyday life. The space where we live is a dynamic space, which evolves conti-nuously. It is shaped through “the eyes of the people who live-inhabit it, it is the space produced by values“. Therefore, there is a continuous reference to the inter-subjectivity, practice and social fabric of a specific place with the goal to trace back its “sense“ and individual processes of familiarity and identification with it. Next to the studies on the region, the city, the district, the hou-se as space lived, a great deal of research was carried out on the relations with the environment among cultures different from the European.The researchers of the space lived broaden the field of analysis to the deepest and subjective components deter-mining a particular spatial domain. The notion of “men-tal map“ became by far more productive than Lynch could expect. Underneath the apparent standardization of behaviours and ideas, there emerged differences,“home areas“, mental processes which differ from the obvious patterns. Yet they must be analyzed in their everyday mi-croenviwnments.Our urban life,Caccia-ri maintains,“can but take place beyond all tradi-tional limits, all boundaries of the city“. Its dimension seems to be mental rather than physical and this leads us to dwell upon the mentalities, the experiences, the fears, the interactions that occur in our everyday life. Also the analysis of modern urban le-gends and recounts can help us to understand some of the contradictions produced by modernity. Like ancient le-gends, they are necessary “to assimilate psychologically, in the form of symbols, situations of public distress with the conflicts subjected to it“.译文:(不少 3000 字(不含标点符号) ,和原文分页)建筑·城市·广场可认知的世界,可实现的世界作者:克里斯蒂娜·布鲁玛蒂城市变迁并不是最近才出现的问题。很多年以来,评论家和规划师就已对城市衰退问题,甚至是“一种城市历史的重现”的问题展开了讨论。大量的且相互矛盾的形象和预期构成了过去 20 年的特色。在 1960 年代,城市化进程似乎是毫不间断的,而由戈特曼为定新的城市聚落而提出的“大都市”一词,很快就获得了一种引申意义:“近乎于一种病态现象:遍及地球表面的一种癌症” ,自从 1970 年代以来,所有的工业化国家都见证了城市增长速度的下降。面对这种逆向的趋势,很多研究者提出了关于城市危机,城市增长模式死亡的假说。人口增长的减缓对大城市产生了主要的影响,尽管在这方面并没有带来太多的思考。因而,出现了所谓“逆城市化”现象的说法,根据贝里的观点,这是一种贯穿整个 20 世纪的趋势。这将导致形成一种“没有城市的城市文明” 。根据作者的看法,这种趋势可归因于一种自由放任主义的态度,人们的自由流动和对在美国城市中肆虐的暴力现象的恐惧,促使人们去寻找“安全的区域” 。他实际上认为城市的扩张和衰退都是“在个人主义传统框架之下的个人决策阵列的产物” 。过去的危险和罪行已使快速的城市化进程开始趋变为大城市的衰退,因此由不同学派所进行的分析和研究逐渐证实了城市危机的图景。对给大城市带来影响的人口下降问题的认识,是与优化空间与劳动力的生产组织过程发展相一致的。电子技术及其显著的生产和程序创新带来了贸易的强化和非物质化,一种时间与空间的压缩;此外还带来了人、社会、生产和空间流通的全面改变。如今的事实证明,城市远远不是正在死亡或衰退。城市化进程超出了城市以及城市日常人群的范畴,而环境恶化问题主要是与空气、水和噪声等污染相关的。为了解释动态的“都市转变的关键” ,还需要求助于过去的心理分类,同时移居到邻近郊区的决定也并不意味着逃避,而是在发展中的新的城市体系边界之内的一种位置选择。因此,我们正在经历这样一个时期:城市结构和个人的习惯、行为与价值观都在发生着彻底的改变。住宅成为了 “核” ,意味着“在家庭和再生产功能之间的交集” ;复兴和流动性似乎已成为形成这种转变的过程的一部分。关于复兴,这是与往昔之间延续性的胜利;综合来看,过去建筑设计和城市设计所可能产生的象征主义,被认为是有益的。反之亦然,流动性则根据目前的功能和空间需要来审视城市:具有重要价值的是那些引领变化和革新的事物,而并不关心对场地象征性空间和历史性“意义”的探求。居住在城市中的人们忍受着来自新族群的压力和威胁。这不仅来自近年来的移民运动,也来自使用和滥用着城市的城市使用者、使用长期车票的通勤者和大都市区消费者的侵入。结果这导致了城市在包容个人组织家庭、参与和决策城市问题方面的能力的降低,而且,因而难以形成“有意义的目标” 。主流的城市生活风尚,似乎正如西墨尔。在先、沃思随后所描述的那样:冷漠、浅薄、匿名,并伴随着影响人口数量增长的背离和分化现象。以上所提到的空间感,并不是始终都与市民的喜好或期望相一致的。对城巿环境的适应主要是认知方面的。这恰恰是通过对可认知现象的分析,也就是个人对也许可以用来确定未来需求和期望的场地的形象来实现的。对空间组织的认知,为规划提供了理解这些确保其能表现社会结构中各个群体综合环境期望的要素和条件的可能性。并不存在某种惟一的城市形象,每个个体都会产生表现为独特认知过程的个人体验。然而,这种体验的惟一性, 又是与在具有相近社会、文化、经济属性和具有相近年龄的个体体验的类似性相一致的。事实上,根据居尔维什的观点,对空间的认知意味着进行一种选择,而这种选择只能是与认知对象所属社会领域相符的参照模式相关联的。陈规、虚构、偏见,导致产生了有时与现实相冲突的、相似的心理图示。这里存在着与构成城市的群体形象同样多的城市形象; 他们的理解能够帮助规划保护和偏重,例如,那些有助于文化整合的要素,并因而使市民能够生活得更好。这一分析的主题涉及五种不同的学科,并强调有釆取跨学科研究途径的需要,需要心理学、地理学、城市设计、社会学和人类学共同进行对个体与环境之间本质关系的分析。我们可以参考两个主要流派:美国釆用较多的认知图示,和在法国发展起来的生活空间方法。认知图示的起源可以追溯到 1930 年代的美国社会心理学;而其在较晚时期的系统化则要归因于唐斯和伊泰松,他们追溯了促使形象形成的认知过程。林奇从格式塔心理学中汲取灵感, 引入了“城市形象 ”的概念。他的兴趣主要集中于形象和物理形式之间的关系:通过“道路” 、 “边界” 、 “区域” 、 “节点” 和“标志物”而在城市居民头脑中产生的识别城市的图示。依照城市设计的观点,“心理图示”是为改善市民生活条件提供可能性的操作性工具,然而,在深化这些研究时,他忽略了某些在心理形象形成过程中有重要作用的内容。事实上,作者关注城市的视觉方面,而没有在意阅历-情感要素,这是属于不同社会、文化范畴和城市历史维度的不同个体之间存在的形象多样性。林奇所进行的主观性调查,遭到古尔德的空间认知理论的反对,他所强调的是相关价值的多样性。他将从包括等值线的地理图示中收集到的数据联系起来并进行解释。他后来与沃尔珀特一起,分析在某种空间文脉环境中形成的决定性过程:移居流向似乎是与信息、体验和情感方面的因素相关的。以这种方式,阅历和文化方面得以复兴,同时对这些决定产生影响的结构性因素则被忽略。此外,在心理图示的决定过程中对信息、大众传媒的重视,似乎对图示自身的存在意义提出质疑。关于这一问题的研究越来越多,而且“心理图示“概念之后,引入了强调城市社会方面问题的“社会—空间系统”概念。兴趣促进了对符号学研究和交往距离的反思。后者是一门关注标准的学科,人类正是通过它来构建并使用空间。空间认知是由文化和语言决定的,它们对交谈者的思想产生影响,并在其过程中认识现实。至于规划前的空间,霍尔认为,一个出生于某个强调线路、即具名街道的欧洲城市的人,在重视交叉点,而不是街道的日本,将会产生迷失感。然而,如果我们优先考虑环境的概念,并将其归因为语言差异的起源,那这一认知假定也许将被颠覆。根据贝塔尼尼的一份关于水的固体状态的报告,大多数欧洲语言都可以区分出冰和雪,然而,在北极地区,我们在冰和雪的不同类型之间发现了很多差别。文化相关性的理论因而被推翻, 并弓 I 发对各种环境和空间的相关性的研究。此后,出现了旨在将空间体验作为对自然产生,或由领导群体创造的环境代码的解译的研究,此外还有关注日常生活的物质空间和主观空间的“生活空间方法”的思潮。我们生活其中的空间是一种不断发展变化的动态空间。它是通过“生活居住于其中的人们的眼睛“形成的, “是由价值观塑造的空间” 。因此,存在着对特定空间的主体间、经验和社会肌理的连续考虑,目标在于追溯其“感知”以及个人熟悉和认同它的过程。在关于区域、城市、地段和作为居住空间的住宅方面的研究之后,在关于不同于欧洲的其他文化中的环境关系方面也出现了大量研究。在居住空间方面的研究者,扩宽了确定某一特定空间范畴的最深层次和主观性要素的分析领域。到目前为止, “心理图示”的概念已比林奇所能期望的更富有积极意义。在行为和观念的外在示准化之下,已显现出了差异, “家庭区域“这一心理过程就不同于表面的模式。然而,他们必须在他们的日常微环境中进行分析。卡恰里认为,我们的城市生活“只能在所有传统限制、城市的所有边界之外进行” 。其维度似乎更多在精神方面而不是物质方面,这引导我们去仔细研究在我们日常生活中出现的心理、体验、恐惧和互动。对现代城市传说和叙事的分析,能够帮助我们去理解现代性所产生的某些矛盾。正如古代传说一样,它们必然会“以象征的形式从心理学角度消化理解公众的疾苦状况及伴生的冲突” 。
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