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对西方建筑文化意义与价值的思考.rar

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    西方 建筑 文化 意义 价值 思考
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    从帕提农神庙到蓬皮杜文化中心—— 对西方建筑文化意义与价值的思考一 绪言——有意义的房屋1. Introduction——Buildings have meaning人们建造房屋是为了解决实际问题,但是,通常房屋不止解决了这些实际问题,而当房屋确实不止解决了这些实际问题时,我们就会称其为“建筑”。因为这些房屋有了文化的维度。Buildings are constructed so as to solve practical problems, but they often do more than that, and when they do then we feel inclined to call them architecture, because they have a cultural dimension. 无论我们是否能意识到,我们都受到生长于其中的文化的影响,也受到我们参与其中的文化的影响。在建筑学中,如同在其他文化中一样我们对事物应该如何的认识是从我们的经验中发展而来的。我们的每一个姿势都有意义,至于说这些姿势意味着什么则取决于理解这一姿势的文化。建筑就是房屋做出的姿态!We are shaped by the culture that we grow up in, and by the culture in which we anticipate, whether we think about it or not. In architecture, as in any other culture, our sense of how things should be develop from our experience. Each gesture that we make means something, but the meaning depends on the culture in which the gesture is understood. Architecture is gesture made with buildings.建筑变得复杂的一个原因是建筑对我们来说在各种不同的方面都具有重要意义。例如,人们所住的住宅,也就是称之为家的那所房子,对于房主来说就负载了某种特殊的意义,而这种意义对于那些不住在这所房屋里的人来说就不存在。One of things that complicates architecture is that it can be significant to us in a variety of different ways. For example, the building I live in, which I think of as my home, carries a special feeling from me that it does not carry for people who don’t live in it.在设计房屋的时候,建筑师不仅要注意房屋的实用性,而且还要关注房屋的文化价值,尽力设计出一个在某种意义上合适的造型。什么样的建筑才是合适的建筑,取决于周围的建筑,使用的建构方法以及建筑的用途。一栋与郊区环境相得益彰的房子如果搬到市中心,就可能显得怪异。一座同样造型的建筑,若是用木料来建造,有可能给人简洁洗练的感觉,但若是用混凝土浇筑而成就会显得不伦不类。一座功能完善的游泳馆建筑不一定会成为一座不错的图书馆,即使它可以当作图书馆来使用,因为游泳馆的外观会令人产生误解。When architects do is to design buildings with an eye not only to their practical utility, but also with an eye to their cultural value, trying to give them a shape that is in some way appropriate. What is that makes a building appropriate will be different in different circumstances, depending on what the surrounding buildings are like, what method of construction can be used, and what role a building plays. What seems right in the suburbs might be strange in a city centre. The same shape of building might be simple and direct if it is built in timber, but downright odd if cast in concrete. A building that makes a good swimming pool does not necessarily make a good library – even if it can be made to work , the building appearance could feel misleading.同样建筑内部的装饰也会对人们的感觉产生影响,使人知道自己在建筑中怎样行事才是适当得体的,并且还能暗示居住者的身份与报负。And also, the architectural setting has s part to play in putting in place a sense of how it would be appropriate to behave, and in indicating the status and aspirations of its inhabitant.建筑的意义并不是一成不变的。例如,农夫建造的自用房屋并没有被看作是一种艺术的表现,只是被当成是可以遮风避雨的遮蔽物而已。然而在浪漫主义诗人眼里,这些乡村贫民那简简单单的农舍表现出了一种品质,那是在恶劣环境中顽强生存的优秀品质,这就意味着这些农舍被看成是具有了姿态。到了 18 世纪末,追求小尺度的乡村居所成为一种时尚。如今,我们会将这些房屋看作是“乡土建筑”,是迷人风景的一个有机的组成部分,而受到法律保护。虽然这些房屋的实际构造没有太大变化,是文化发生了变化。The meaning in buildings is not fixed in them. For example, the cottages that were built by agricultural workers for their own use were not considered as a form of artistic expression, but as serviceable shelters. However the romantic poets saw the simple cottages of the rural poor as an expression of tenacious virtue in bleak circumstances, which meant that they were as gestural, and then by the end of the 18th century there was a fashion for small-scale rural retreats. Today we see them they are vernacular architecture and a charming part of the scenery, protected by legislation. Even when the actual fabric of the building has not changed much, there has been a change in culture.而建筑与好房子并不是一回事。建筑指的是所有房屋的文化属性,不论好坏。将材料堆砌在一起属于房屋的范畴,而这些房屋所表现出的姿态——铺张浪费、异国情调和勃勃生机——却属于建筑的范畴。如果简洁和粗狂就是房屋的特质,那么也是建筑范畴的。An architecture is not the same thing as good buildings, but is the cultural aspect of any building at all, good or bad. The putting together of materials belongs to the realm of building, but the building’s gestures——the extravagance, exoticism, and exuberance——belong to the realm of architecture, as would simplicity and ruggedness, if those were the building’s particular qualities.设计者赋予一座建筑的象征意义与看到这座建筑的现代人所理解的象征意义并不总是一致。其所在的文化离你越远,这种不一致的情况越容易出现。例如,金字塔被看成是远古之谜的象征符号,这并不是因为金字塔设计者的设计意图就是如此,而是因为金字塔距离现代的理性主义是如此的遥远!我们对之知之甚少罢了。法老的建筑绝不是粗疏与偶然之作。但是我们同样可以确定的一点是,这些建筑绝不是粗疏与偶然之作。但是,我们同样可以确认的一点是,这些建筑的原始意义已经不为我们今天的人所了解,试图重现这些意义只能算是一种臆测,永远也不可能像原来的建筑师那样有直觉感染力。法老的建筑中蕴含的意义已经发生了变化,这些意义不仅仅取决于那些石头,同时也取决于对法老的建筑加以解读的文化。二 西方建筑文化意义的兴变2 . Growth and change of western architectural cultural meaning在世界各地,从古至今的建筑可谓玲琅满目。建筑可以是漂亮而振奋人心的,然而,一旦它们被建造就包含了经济和政治层面,当然,也包括美学层面。此外还有其他层面,例如建造技术层面。比如说这座房屋能否立起来?它能否做到遮风避雨?房屋的室内能否温暖如春?抑或它会燥热难忍?人们能否在其中过其希望的生活?或者,想成为在这建筑中生活的那种人?There is a great deal of architecture around ,from the recent and distant past around world. Builds can be beautiful and inspiring, but if they are built then they always have an economic and political aspect, as well as an aesthetic aspect. There are another aspects too, such as the technical side of things. Will it stand up? Will it keep the rain out? Can it be kept warm? Will it overheat? Can I use it as a place where I can live the life I want? Do I want to be the sort of person who lives in a place like this?建筑与无数的文化与技术因素相关,而且关系复杂,因而它们在不同的领域具有不同层面的意义。Buildings are involved in a complex way with an indefinite number of cultural and technical matters, and therefore they can have different levels of significance in different spheres.在各种文明的产物中建筑应该是最为昂贵之物了。Buildings can be the most expensive things that civilizations produce.建筑之所以重要,一个原因是它能透露给我们一些线索,从而使我们了解历史上的统治者真正看重的事物。另一个原因是建筑还能告诉我们,它如何使我们这些活着的人以特定的生活方式成为可能,并且让我们能够向彼此和自己证明什么才是我们关注的事,无论是作为个人,还是作为社会这个整体。One of the things that mattered about architecture is how it gives us clues to what really mattered to rulers of the past. Another thing is how it makes it possible for us , the living, to live in certain ways, and to demonstrate to each other and ourselves what it is that we really care about, as individuals and as a society. 反过来说,我们要么刻意选择一种能够反映我们是什么样的人的环境生活,要么发现自己生活在这样一种环境中——他透露出的我们的性格特征远比自己意识到的要多。Conversely we either deliberately choose to live in surroundings that reflect our ideas about who we are, or else find ourselves living in conditions that somehow reveal more about us than we realize.究竟是考虑人们当前的需求,还是超越人们眼前的需求以建造出名垂青史的建筑,这两者之间如何平衡,不同的文明有着不同的答案。Different civilizations strike different balances between what seems to be owed to the living, and going beyond immediate needs in order to make things that build a reputation in posterity.建筑之所以能够特别引起考古学家的兴趣,原因之一是他们负载了如此多的生活层面的信息。建筑与生活方式密切相关,通过对建筑的解读,我们可以对住户的生活做出推断。如果我们能够搞清楚哪些人被带到一处,哪些人被分隔开,那么建筑的布置方式就会告诉我们人们在建筑中是如何互动的。建筑物的建造材料以及处理这些材料的方法也可以告诉我们很多信息。如果建造房屋的石头来自很远的地方,那么我们就知道要么当时存在一种有效的交通运输体系,要么就是这些石头十分特殊,值得人们去大费周章。如果一座建筑用了钢铁构架,那么我们就知道它是现在建筑,因为古人根本不懂钢铁构架。One of things that makes buildings particularly interesting to archaeologists is that they are caught up in so many aspects of life. The way they are organized tells us something about the way people interact in them, if we can work out which groups of people are brought together, and which kept apart. The materials from which buildings are made, and the way the materials are handled, can also tell us a great deal. If the stone came from a long way away, then we know that either there was an efficient transport system or that the stones were very special and worth a great deal of effort. If a building has a steel frame, then we know that it belongs to the modern age because the ancient world didn’t know about them.我们从古代希腊与罗马的文明开始他们以其文学、哲学、与宏伟的建筑遗迹而闻名于世。We start with the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome., which were admired for their literature, philosophy, and grandiose ruins.例如,若从非常笼统的角度来理解古代世界,那么将希腊与罗马建筑统称为“古典建筑”是十分恰当的。古希腊建筑本事就有一个古典时期,即公元前 5 世纪,这一时期之前为初创时期,之后则为希腊化时期。那些长期以来始终如一地与西方传统中的美德和高贵思想密切相关的古希腊建筑,以雅典卫城的帕提农神庙为代表,其造型非常优雅而精准,是古希腊建筑的最高成就。罗马也有自己的初创时期,接着是共和时期,然后是帝国时期。这样一种划分既考虑了艺术上的变化,又考虑了政治上的变化。For example, when the ancient world is understood in a very general way it can be quite adequate to call the architecture of Greece and Rome generically classical. The architecture of ancient Greece itself has a classical era, the 5th century BC, preceded by an archaic era, and followed by the Hellenistic era. Rome has its own archaic era, a republican, and then an imperial period. These divisions are taken from a mixture of artistic and political changes.在中世纪,许多不同的建筑风格得到了发展。那些试图模仿罗马穹顶与拱券的教堂被称为“罗马风”建筑。In the medieval period many different styles of architecture developed. Churches that tried to imitate roman vaults and arches are now called Romanesque. 后来使用了尖拱券和更富于装饰性的花饰窗格的教堂被称为“哥特式”建筑。Later churches that used pointed arches and more decorative window tracery are called Gothic. 哥特式建筑又进一步细分成不同的地方风格。Gothic is subdivided into different local styles. 这些地方风格的名称大多源自描述建筑效果的概念。罗马风也将我们引回建筑形式,而这些建筑形式又让人想起了古罗马的建筑。The names of local styles are mostly derived from ideas that describe the effect of architecture. Romanesque also refers us back to the form of the building, which is reminiscent of those of Rome. “罗马风”建筑可以被称为“诺曼式”建筑,这以兴建它们的诺曼底的那些领主来命名的。因而是对同一种建筑风格所起的“政治性”称谓。同样,“哥特式”这个名称也是政治性的,因为这一名称与一个族群,也就是摧毁罗马的“哥特人”有关。
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