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    广西科技大学毕业设计(论文)外文翻译课题名称 某城市博物馆建筑方案设计 学 院 土木建筑工程学院专 业 建筑学 班 级 建筑 091 班 学 号 200900503007 姓 名 韦妮松 指导教师 卢琳彬 罗锐东 2014 年 2 月 24 日The Eyes of The SkinThe Significance of the shadowThe eye is the organ of distance and separation, whereas touch is the sense of nearness, intimacy and affection. The eye surveys, controls and investigates, whereas touch approaches and caresses. During overpowering emotional experiences, we tend to close off the distancing sense of vision; we close the eyes when dreaming, listening to music, or caressing our beloved ones. Deep shadows and darkness are essential, because they dim the sharpness of vision, make depth and distance ambiguous, and invite unconscious peripheral vision and tactile fantasy.How much more mysterious and inviting is the street of an old town with its alternating realms of darkness and light than are the brightly and evenly lit streets of today! The imagination and daydreaming are stimulated by dim light and shadow. In order to think clearly, the sharpness of vision has to be suppressed, for thoughts travel with an absent-minded and unfocused gaze. Homogenous bright light paralyses the imagination in the same way that homogenization of space weakens the experience of being, and wipes away the sense of place. The human eye is most perfectly tuned for twilight rather than bright daylight.Mist and twilight awaken the imagination by making visual images unclear and ambiguous; a Chinese painting of a foggy mountain landscape, or the raked sand garden of Ryoan-ji Zen Garden give rise to an unfocused way of looking, evoking a trance-like, meditative state. The absent-minded gaze penetrates the surface of the physical image and focuses in infinity. In his book In Praise of Shadows, Junichiro Tanizaki points out that even Japanese cooking depends upon shadows, and that it is inseparable from darkness: And when he is served in a lacquer dish, it is as if the darkness of the room were melting on your tongue.’ The writer reminds us that, in olden times, the blackened teeth of the geisha and her green black lips as well as her white painted face were all intended to emphasise the darkness and shadows of the room.Likewise, the extraordinarily powerful sense of focus and presence in the painting of Caravaggio and Rembrandt arises from the depth of shadow in which the protagonist is embedded lick a precious object on a dark velvet background that absorbs all light. The shadow gives shape and lift to the object in light. It also provides the realm from which fantasies and dreams arise. The art of chiaroscuro is a skill of the master architect too. In great architectural spaces, there is a constant, deep breathing of shadow and light; shadow inhales and illumination exhales light.In our time, light has turned into a mere quantitative matter and the window has lost its significance as a mediator between two worlds, between enclosed and open, interiority and exteriority, private and public, shadow and light. Having lost its ontological meaning, the window has turned into a mere absence of the wall. Take the use of enormous plate window they deprive our buildings of intimacy, the effect of shadow and atmosphere. Architects all over the world have been mistaken in the proportions which they have assigned to large plate windows or spaces opening to the outside. We have lost our sense of intimate life, and have become forced to live public lives, essentially away from home, writes Luis Barragan, the true magician of intimate secrecy, mystery and shadow in contemporary architecture. Likewise, most contemporary public spaces would become more enjoyable through a lower light intensity and its uneven distribution. The dark womb of the council chamber of Alvar Aalto’s Saynatsalo Town Hall recreates a mystical and mythological sense of community; darkness creates a sense of solidarity and strengthens the power of the spoken word.In emotional states, sense stimuli seen to shift from the more refined senses towards the more archaic, from vision down to hearing, touch and smell, and from light to shadow. A culture that seeks to control its citizens is likely to promote the opposite direction of interaction, away from intimate individuality and identification towards a public and distant detachment. A society of surveillance is necessarily a society of the voyeuristic and sadistic eye. An efficient method of mental torture is the use of a constantly high level of illumination that leaves no space for mental withdrawal or privacy; even the dark interiority of self is exposed and violated.Acoustic IntimacySight isolates, whereas sound incorporates; vision is directional, whereas sound is omni-directional. The sense of sight implies exteriority, but sound creates an experience of interiority. I regard an object, but sound approaches me; the eye reaches, but the ear receives. Buildings do not react to our gaze, but they do return our sounds back to our ears. “The centring action of sound affects man’s sense of cosmos, writes Walter Ong. ‘For oral cultures, the cosmos is an ongoing event with man at its centre. Man is the umbilicus mundi, the navel of the world.’ It is thought provoking that the mental loss of the sense of centre in the contemporary world could be attributed, at least in part, to the disappearance of the integrity of the audible world.Hearing structures and articulates the experience and understanding of space. We are not normally aware of the significance of hearing in spatial experience, although sound often provides the temporal continuum in which visual impressions are embedded. When the soundtrack is removed from a film, for instance, the scene loses its plasticity and sense of continuity and life. Silent film, indeed, had to compensate for the lack of sound by a demonstrative manner of overacting.Adrian Stokes, the English painter and essayist, makes perceptive observations about the interaction of space and sound, sound and stone. ‘Like mothers of men, the buildings are good listeners. Long sounds, distinct or seemingly in bundles, appease the orifices of palaces the orifices of palaces that lean back gradually from canal or pavement. A long sound with its echo brings consummation to the stone,’ he writes.Anyone who has half-woken up to the sound of a train or an ambulance in a nocturnal city, and through his/her sleep experienced the space of the city with its countless inhabitants scattered within its structures, knows the power of sound over the imagination; the nocturnal sound is a reminder of human solitude and mortality, and it makes one conscious of the entire slumbering city. Anyone who has become entranced by the sound of dripping water in the darkness of a ruin can attest to the extraordinary capacity of the ear to carve a volume into the void of darkness. The space traced by the ear in the darkness becomes a cavity sculpted directly in the interior of the mind.The last chapter of Steen Eiler Rasmussen’s seminal book Experiencing Architecture is significantly entitled ‘Hearing Architecture.’ The writer describes various dimensions of acoustical qualities, and recalls the acoustic percept of the underground tunnels in Vienna in Orson Welles’ film The Third Man: ‘Your ear receives the impact of both the length and the cylindrical form of the tunnel.’One can also recall the acoustic harshness of an uninhabited and unfurnished house as compared to the affability of a lived home, in which sound is refracted and softened by the numerous surfaces of objects if personal life. Every building or space has its characteristic sound of intimacy or monumentality, invitation or rejection, hospitality or hostility. A space is understood and appreciated through its echo as much as through its visual shape, but the acoustic percept usually remains as an unconscious background experience.Sight is the sense of the solitary observer, whereas hearing creates a sense of connection and solidarity; our look wanders lonesomely in the dark depths of a cathedral, but the sound of the organ makes us immediately experience our affinity with the space. We stare alone at the suspense of a circus, but the burst of applause after the relaxation of suspense unites us with the crowd. The sound of church bells echoing through the streets of a town makes us aware of our citizenship. The echo of steps on a paved street has an emotional charge because the sound reverberating from surrounding walls puts us in direct interaction with space; the sound measures space and makes its scale comprehensible. We stroke the boundaries of the space with our ears. The cries of seagulls in the harbor awaken an awareness of the vastness of the ocean and the infiniteness of the horizon.Every city has its echo which depends on the pattern and scale of its streets and the prevailing architectural styles and materials. The echo of a Renaissance city differs from that of a Baroque city. But our cities have lost their echo altogether. The wide, open spaces of contemporary streets do not return sound, and in the interiors of today’s buildings echoes are absorbed and censored. The programmed recorded music of shopping malls and public spaces eliminates the possibility of grasping the acoustic volume of space. Our ears have been blinded.TOUCHING THE WORLDJuhani PallasmaaIn 1995 the editors at Academy Editions, London invited me to write a volume of their ‘Polemics’ series, in the form of an extended essay of 32 pages on a subject matter that I found pertinent in the architectural discourse of the time. The result my little book The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Sense-was published in the following year.The second part of my manuscript took its basic ideas from an essay entitle ‘An Architecture of the Seven Senses,’ published in Architecture Urbanism, Questions of Perception (Special Issue, July 1994), a publication on Steven Holl’s architectural work, which also included essays by Steven Holl himself and Alberto Perez-Gomez. A somewhat later lecture given in a seminar on architectural phenomenology at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen in June 1995, where the three writers of Questions of Perception presented lectures, provided the basic arguments and references for the first part.Somewhat to my surprise, the humble book was received very positively, and it became required reading on architectural theory courses in numerous schools of architecture around the world. As a consequence, the edition was sold out rather quickly and, in the subsequent years, the book has circulated in the form of countless photocopies.The polemical essay was initially based on personal experience, views and speculations. I had become increasingly concerned about the bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses, in the way architecture was conceived, taught and critiqued from the arts and architecture.During the 10 years that have passed since I wrote the book, interest in the significance of the senses-both philosophically and in terms of experiencing, making and teaching architecture-has grown significantly. My assumptions of the role of the body as the locus of perception, thought and consciousness, and of the significance of the senses in articulating, storing and processing sensory responses and thoughts, have been strengthened and confirmed.With the title ‘The Eyes of the Skin’ I wished to express the significance of the tactile sense for our experience and understanding of the world, but I also intended to create a conceptual short circuit between the dominant sense of vision and the suppressed sense modality of touch. Since writing the original text I have learned that our skin is actually capable of distinguishing a number of colours; we do indeed see by our skin.The primacy of the tactile sense has become increasingly evident. The role of peripheral and unfocused vision in our lived experience of the world as well as in our experience of interiority in the spaces we inhabit, has also evoked my interest. The very essence of the lived experience is moulded by hapticity and peripheral unfocused vision. Focused vision confronts us with the world whereas peripheral vision envelops us in the flesh of the world. Alongside the critique of the hegemony of vision, we need to reconsider the very essence of sight itself.All the senses, including vision, are extensions of the tactile sense; the senses are specializations of skin tissue, and all sensory experiences are modes of touching and thus related to tactility. Our contact with the world takes place at the boundary line of the self through specialised parts of our enveloping membrane.The view of Ashley Montagu, the anthropologist, based on medical evidence, confirms the primacy of the haptic realm:[The skin] is the oldest and the most sensitive of our organs, our first medium ofcommunication, and our most efficient protector… Even the transparent corneaof the eye is overlain by a layer of modified skin … Touch is the parent of our eyesears, nose, and mouth. It is the sense which became differentiated into the others, a fact that seems to be recognized in the age-old evaluation of touchas “the mother of the senses”.Touch is the sensory mode that integrates our experience of the world with that of ourselves. Even visual perceptions are fused and integrated into the haptic continuum of the self; my body remembers who I am and where I am located in the world. My body is truly the navel of my world, not in the sense of the viewing point of the central perspective, but as the very locus of reference, memory, imagination and integration.It is evident that ‘life-enhancing’ architecture has to address all the senses simultaneously and fuse our image of self with our experience of the world. The essential mental task of architecture is accommodation and integration. Architecture articulates the experiences of being-in-the-world and strengthens our sense of reality and self; it does not make us inhabit worlds of mere fabrication and fantasy.The sense of self, strengthened by art and architecture, allows us to engage fully in the mental dimensions of dream, imagination and desire. Buildings and cities provide the horizon for the understanding and confronting of the human existential condition. Instead of creating mere objects of visual seduction, architecture relates, mediates and projects meanings. The ultimate meaning of any building is beyond architecture; it directs our consciousness back to the world and towards our own sense of self and being. Significant architecture makes us experience ourselves as complete embodied and spiritual beings. In fact, this is the great function of all meaningful art.In the experience of art, a peculiar exchange takes place; I lend my emotions and associations to the space lends me its aura, which entices and emancipates my perceptions and thoughts. An architectural work is not experienced as serie
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