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Beshghardash景观生态公园中的设计模式.rar

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    Beshghardash 景观 生态 公园 中的 设计 模式
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    225 Recebido: dia/mês/ano Aceito: dia/mês/ano Ciência eNatura, Santa Maria, v. 37 Part 1 2014, p. 225−236 ISSN impressa: 0100-8307 ISSN on-line: 2179-460X A Pattern for Eco-park design in Beshghardash landscape Mojgan Ghorbanzadeh1, Seyed Hasan Taghvaei 2 1 Instructor, Department of Architecture, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Iran 2 Associate Professor, Department of landscape Architecture, Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran, Iran Abstract Nowadays, attention to strengthen environmental problems, effected from increasing population and process of development in countries, one of the major concern of designers is recognition of the suitable conditions of natural environment, and promotion of the environmental quality. This case with focus to present capabilities and uses of biodiversity and domestic is applied. Eco-park is one of the capabilities which have been designed to the following objectives: Protection of environment and environmental technology progress, Promenade and demonstrate, Learning information for public and Displaying unification between nature and human and their mutual relationship for promotion the comprehension of environment. This paper is about investigation and recognition of capabilities, for creating the suitable situation to change as regional Eco-park. The Case study is named “Beshghardash“ that is located in 5th Kilometers Bodjnourd ( center of northern Khorasan province ). This region has approximately 380 hectares area and located in cold and dry climate , which is one of the attractive tourism centers in this region . This study is based on four principles as the following: Protection principle, Development principle, Principle of responsibility to public welfare in present and future, Adapting with situations principle. Finally pattern of designing the Beshghardash Eco-park following the objectives which are in sustainable environment and can say that Beshghardash Eco-park is a natural environment , which moreover to verify to environmental values can answer the sustainable development , like improving the humans life quality. Keywords: Eco-park, Beshghardash, sustainability, semi arid landscape. . 226 Recebido: dia/mês/ano Aceito: dia/mês/ano 1 Introduction vidence shows that planet Earth is experiencing a so-called environmental crisis. This crisis is characterized by three major themes:  rapid growth of the human population and its associated economic activity  The depletion of both non-renewable and renewable resources; and  Extensive and intensive damage caused to ecosystems and biodiversity ⦋1⦌and⦋2⦌and⦋3⦌and⦋4⦌. In Such a critical situation and obligations, many scientific and artistic disciplines have new approaches to solving or at least reduce the problems. Nowadays the art and knowledge of architecture and landscape architecture spans across many disciplines and, though landscape design can be a focus, the work of environmentalists, ecologists, land artists and environmental designers is often equally valid. Meanwhile, in some countries like Iran with well-known tradition and culture particularly, built environment and settlements could follow an expression and treasure of its cultural values and beliefs of sustainability. Therefore, the need for a new vocabulary to express a different philosophy of design and approach is very apparent in the discussions of the sustainable architecture and ecological landscape. One of the best potentials in addition, context for examining of this matter is finding the various and useful functions of Natural potentials such as Eco-parks. Foundation of such places, recreational and environmental, is essential in order to achieve the urban sustainable development and observing the following points is recommended: “Assigning the goals of any project and making it compatible with economic requirements; activities consistency with each other ; making use of local, social and managerial potentials and possibilities to express recreational, educational function. Eco-parks merely developed through activities which are consistent with environment and renewable industry. It constitutes of relevant environmental technology and services, in particular renewable industries and their products.” ⦋5⦌. Therefore, developing countries authorities and professionals consider protection, reviving and putting local environment potentials into order. In this paper, the typical case study reviews has been accomplished the Beshqardash area located in North-East of Iran, which has plenty of capabilities for turning into an Eco-park. This paper is attempting to introduce Beshqardash area and its: natural potentials, the authors consider the basic principles and objectives of Eco- parks. Meanwhile, research and survey of ecological design approaches, vernacular landscaping and appropriate patterns for designing of an ecological park. In this process, the relevant literature is substantial and spans an immense range from vernacular research and tacit knowledge of architecture and landscaping references to modern technical and scientific studies. There are some propounded theories in environmental design; relation of human and nature, and ecological paradigms of sustainability has been a referral. In addition, study and examining three examples of Eco-Park in the world, with adaptation from the mentioned propound views, the principles of Eco- Park designing in the presented semi-arid areas in every stage. The compatible cases with environment has been stated in terms of environmental capabilities and the area's cultural and social characteristics that finally access to a compatible pattern can be effective in maintenance and restoration of the natural potentials and environmental development. 2 The Environment and Context of Project The historical –natural area of Beshqardash which named Beshqardash park today, has been located in Km 5, south- west of Bojnourd ( E 227 Recebido: dia/mês/ano Aceito: dia/mês/ano center of province of Northern Khorasan) in north-east of Iran (see Figure 1). The word “Beshqardash“ in local language means five brothers. According a historical truth, these brothers had taken refuge in this area from tyranny of Mongol governors and had fought against them. Such natural and historical area includes a running spring, very old trees (more than100 years old), many brooks and streams, and old tomb with a beautiful blue color dome which has view among the old trees branches. This place is surrounded by rock mountains and hills, including a 30m high hill on the east with five spring emerging on its foot. The medical experts believe that the water from the spring is beneficial for some medical and healing properties. It unbelievably benefits from a permanent spring per 10 Kilometers and in fact, no other place has known with such a unique situation in terms of widespread springs in mountain environment. Therefore, the city comprehensive design insisted on Beshghardash project because of its natural potentials: abundant drinking water, suitable morphology, natural and artificial coverage, its availability and near access to Bojnord city either on foot or by car. 3 Environmental Approaches and “Ecologist Landscape Design” During the environmental challenges on the beginning of 20th century, there are major approaches to nature and environmental value that emerged from returning to understanding of vernacular tacit knowledge, and ecological approaches of academies around the world. These issues had wide range effect on design theories, planning and practice in the middle of last century. In addition, the relevant literature spans an immense range from ancient religious, spiritual and even mythical references to modern technical and scientific studies. In 1986, Tylor as biology-based scientists has been propounded environmental ethics who has a deep respect for nature. In Tylor’s opinion, natural behaviors are suitable pattern for assigning human-nature relation. It is the Structure and operation of earth ecosystem, which clarifies the true relation between human and world's nature. Ecological balance between organisms as well as them and their environment in a healthy ecosystem should be our guidance in formation of a human culture coordinated with nature's system⦋ 6⦌ . As a basic environmental-ecological theory and ecocentric thought, Ian McHarg’s presentation of an “ecological method” for regional planning and design expresses something of aesthetic motivation underlying the method during forty years. The book of Design with Nature (1996) by McHarg, had intensive effect on planning and design theories and methods. “While McHarg advocated his theory and, fortunately John T. Lyle’s long term researches on environmental and sustainable design and in particular, his idea Regenerative Design sets powerful expression of a more adaptive ecological approach.” ⦋7⦌ Lyle believes that “If we accept that the current level of ecological consciousness is part of the beginning of a long-lasting, fundamental change in attitudes and environmental values, then landscape architecture must bear a large measure of responsibility for making aesthetic sense out of this attitudinal metamorphosis”. ⦋ 8⦌ As a landscape architect and specialist designer of desert climate, John C. Krieg⦋ 9⦌ regarding ecology-oriented landscaping and considering ecological characteristics, some of important factors of his idea about desert design techniques are: Speak the local vernacular, Theme Gardens Evoke Emotions, Apply the unusual, Maximize views, Introduce water, and Invite wildlife. Figur1 1: An overview of Besh Ghardash 228 Recebido: dia/mês/ano Aceito: dia/mês/ano 4 Strategies and sources for Environmental Design and Eco-Park In this section, findings for Beshghardash Eco-Park, for example could define with the factors of both recent researches and findings: Lyle’s Regenerative Design ⦋10⦌and Taghvaei’s “Oasis paradigm” proposal (2002) and “Ecologist Landscape Design” theory(2005). First, for creating ecologically inspired landscape that is to contain the characteristics of spontaneous landscape, Lyle suggests observation of the following seven points: Working with nature, Enrichment through complexity, the landscape as process, Creativity on site, Involvement of the users, Minimal energy consumption, the natural landscape outside the front door. Second, the properties inherent in the Oasis Paradigm defined systematically, through a field survey of Iranian desert landscape architecture, ecological tacit knowledge and supported by a literature review of Iranian historical texts on literature, religion, philosophy, agriculture, horticulture, and sciences. In addition, the main output and principle of the “Ecologist Landscape Design” follows a set of strategies for qualitative improvement in the landscape design of Hot Arid Zones (Specially in Iranian plateau). This entails a theoretical framework that can be refined by further research. They include: ⦋ 11⦌  Strategies for designing a sustainable habitable microclimate (oasis) interconnected to a bigger harsh macroclimate (desert/ Kavir)  Patterns for physical planning of the built and planted environment;  A theoretical framework for sitting, locating and expansion of existing landscapes; and  The application of the theoretical framework to solve contemporary design problems such as cultural identity, energy conservation, preservation of natural resources and etc. Finally, Symison ⦋12⦌with a complete environmental view has simply introduced stability principles: 1) minimizing natural sources consumption, 2) All the wastes recycling or reuse, 3) Non- production of any pollution that is not recyclable or digestible, and 4) General rely on clean and renewable energy technologies. Indeed, the mentioned principles, after propounded sustainability are the basis of environmental design factors in Eco-Parks. Today by considering the discussed theories in environmental design and formation of a sustainable and ecologic landscaping specially in hot and semi-arid climate, and Golany’s principle for planning in hot arid zones ⦋13⦌, we can refer to the following views in brief: In conclusion to the above mentioned theories, “if we want the efficiency and sustainability of environment and landscape, the environmental designing decisions should be combined with nature's complex order and join the human and natural systems.” ⦋14⦌ 5 Environmental Design patterns for an Eco-Park In this part of essay 2 case studies have been examined and analyzed in details so that their thought patterns can be applied in organizing Beshqardash project. Table 1: La mesa Eco-park⦋15⦌ La mesa ; Philippines Kozen City; 2005 Design objectives Reconstruction United state of America; 1997 Design objectives -The relation of schools student with nature -Making natural environments which have stimulating educational role , through designing woodlands, canebrakes, lakes, lawns, and green wooden shelters -Applying solar energy , wind turbine and polluted water recycling system Physical program -Educational recreational environments for school students and making a close relation with nature through observing plant growth, hunting animals -Exhibiting spaces: Innovative and varied landscape of natural gardens , cane brakes and displaying technologies related to renewable resources -Environments related to natural ecosystem and protection of resources -rain water collecting and leading it into the lake and applying the excess water for irrigation The important points -Environment training for students and teachers and increasing their environmental knowledge -Protection against water resources available in the park Usage of renewable resources and material recycling Figur2 2:Aerial view of Lamsa Eco-Park. (http://www.clickthecity.com/travel/) 230 Recebido: dia/mês/ano Aceito: dia/mês/ano Figur4 4:Species diversity and use of native species. Personal Author’s collection 6.1.2 Forest project in the region water shed this project retain soil natural environment by planting proper species including broad-leaved as well as needle –leaved plants step wise 10 percent from total 340 hectares is allocated to pedestrian crossing , parking, sport area and arbors ;300 hectares will be planted in watershed area forest cultivation in watershed area. Also the significant benefits which follow the forest making plant in this area should be taken into consideration that finally causes health of body, soul and environment. 6.1.3 Water resource protection “Beshghardash main sprigs are located in its east watershed area and its protection is critical. However, the springs can’t meet to provide the complex water requirements sufficiently and nearby water wells and springs as well as the river which is located in the lower west part of the complex must be exploited to fill the artificial lake and provide other water requirements. The water from the main springs is used uniqu
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