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基于LabVIEW的虚拟频谱分析仪的设计.rar

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    基于 LabVIEW 虚拟 频谱 分析 设计
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    科技学院 2011 届本科毕业论文基于 LabVIEW 的虚拟频谱分析仪的设计专 业:电子信息工程 指导教师:屠葵葵 学生姓名:赵英才 学生学号:072004110487 中国﹒贵州﹒贵阳2011 年 5 月贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 I 页I目 录目录·····································································Ⅰ摘要·····································································ⅢAbstract·································································Ⅳ第一章 引言·······························································11.1 课题背景与研究意义················································11.2 国内外研究现状····················································21.2.1 传统频谱分析贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 II 页II仪··············································21.2.2 现代频谱分析仪··············································21.2.3 虚拟仪器的现状··············································31.3 研究内容··························································4第二章 虚拟仪器及 LabVIEW 介绍·············································62.1 虚拟仪器的基本概念················································62.1.1 虚拟仪器含义················································62.1.2 虚拟仪器的特点··············································72.1.3 虚拟仪器的构成及分类········································72.2 LabVIEW 简介·······················································8贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 III 页III2.2.1 LabVIEW 含义·················································82.2.2 LabVIEW 软件的特点与优点···································10第三章 虚拟频谱分析仪····················································123.1 频谱分析仪的介绍·················································123.2 虚拟频谱分析仪的设计功能·········································133.2.1 时域分析····················································133.2.2 频谱分析····················································133.2.3 倒频谱分析··················································143.2.4 希氏伯特变换················································143.2.5 时域加贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 IV 页IV窗····················································153.2.6 滤波功能····················································18第四章 基于 LabVIEW 虚拟频谱分析仪设计与实现······························214.1 LabVIEW 软件的应用方法············································214.1.1 LabVIEW 的模板介绍··········································214.1.2 创建一个 VI 程序············································214.1.3 程序调试···················································234.2 基于 LabVIEW 的虚拟频谱分析仪前面板设计····························244.3 所用控件模板的介绍················································294.3.1 时域加窗····················································294.3.2 FFT 分析····································贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 V 页V················304.3.3 幅度-相位谱·················································324.3.4 功率谱·····················································334.3.5 倒频谱······················································354.3.6 希氏伯特变换···············································36第五章 结论与展望························································37参考文献·································································39致贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 VI 页VI谢·····································································40基于 LabVIEW 的虚拟频谱分析仪的设计摘 要信号处理几乎涉及到所有的工程技术领域,而频谱分析正是信号处理中一个非常重要的分析手段。一般的频谱分析都依靠传统频谱分析仪来完成,价格昂贵,体积庞大,不便于工程技术人员的携带。随着微电子技术、计算机技术、网络通信技术和软件技术的高速发展,传统的仪器开始向计算机化的方向发展。虚拟仪器,就是在以通用计算机为核心的硬件平台上,由用户设计定义、具有虚拟前面板、测试功能由测试软件实现的一种计算机仪器系统。它利用软件在微机屏幕上构成虚拟仪器面板,在硬件的支持下对信号进行采样,既可以进行实时的信号分析、显示,又可以在离线条件下对存贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 VII 页VII储的采集结果进行各种软件处理。通过软件编写及硬件配置,虚拟仪器可以实现完全由用户自己定义、适合不同应用环境和对象的各种功能。采用虚拟仪器技术,只需在相应的硬件支持下,即可以用软件编程来实现虚拟频谱分析仪。本论文介绍了虚拟频谱分析仪的设计和实现,该系统是基于图象化编程语言——LabVIEW 而编写的,整个系统由虚拟信号发生器模块和频谱分析模块两部分组成。虚拟信号发生器模块能够产生正弦波、三角波、方波、锯齿波等标准信号,并且可以叠加各种干扰噪声;频谱分析模块主要是对上述信号进行滤波和加窗函数处理,输出处理后的波形,同时进行时域分析、频域分析以及谐波分析。同时这个虚拟仪器具有友好的人机界面。关键词:虚拟仪器;虚拟频谱分析仪;图形化编程语言;LabVIEW;FFTThe design of virtual spectrum analyzer based on LabVIEWAbstractSignal processing involved in almost all areas of engineering,and analysis of the spectrum signal processing is a very important means of analysis,The general analysis of the spectrum have to rely on traditional spectrum analyzer which is expensive,bulky and not easy to bring for the engineers and technicians.With the rapid development of micro-electronics, computer, network communication t and software’s technique, the tradition instrument is changed in the computerized direction.Virtual instrument, that is, the general purpose computer as the core hardware platform, defined by the user with a virtual front panel, the test function is performed by a computer software testing instrument systems. It uses computer 贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 VIII 页VIIIsoftware constitutes a virtual instrument panel on the screen,and the sampling signal is gathered under the hardware's support, not only the signal can be proceeded, analyzed and shown in real time, but also the storage consequence can be handled variety under the off-line term. By writing the software and installing the hardware, the virtual instrument can be defined completely by customer for applying different environment and the functions of objects. Under the corresponding hardware support the virtual spectrum analyzer can be achieved by using the software. In this paper the design and implementation of virtual spectrum analyzer are presented. The system is designed by using the graphical programming language LabVIEW. The whole system is composed of both virtual signal generator and spectrum analysis.The virtual signal generator can generate sine wave,triangle wave,square wave, sawtooth wave and other standard signal.It window function on it, then to output the processed signals. It also analyzes time domain,frequency domain and harmonic of wave at the sametime.In the time the user-friendly human-machine interface is achieved in this system.Key words:Virtual instrument, Virtual spectrum analyzer, Graphic programming language, Lab VIEW ,FFT贵州大学科技学院本科毕业论文(设计) 第 1 页1第 1 章 引言1.1 课题背景与研究意义现代计算机技术和信息技术的迅猛发展,犹如滚滚长江东流水,冲击着国民经济的各个领域,也引起了测量仪器和测试技术的巨大变革。人们曾为测量仪器从模拟化、数字化到智能化的进步而欣喜,也为自动测试技术的日新月异的发展所鼓舞,当今虚拟仪器技术的出现又使得测量仪器进步入了高科技的殿堂。虚拟仪器利用软件在微机屏幕上构成虚拟仪器面板,在硬件的支持下对信号进行采样,既可以进行实时的信号分析、显示,又可以在离线条件下对存储的采集结果进行各种软件处理。通过软件编写及硬件配置,虚拟仪器可以实现完全由用户自己定义、适合不同应用环境和对象的各种功能。由于在机械测试中所需的测试仪器繁多复杂,导致对一些简单的测试工作也需要大量的人力、物力。LabVIEW 虚拟仪器图形编程语言可组建虚拟测试系统,利用“软件就是仪器”的技术方法,减少测试中的设备,同样实现信号进行实时采集、处理、分析的目的。编程对工程技术人员来说是件麻烦事,LabVIEW 软件用图形编程语言,直观简单、易于操作。使用 LabVIEW 用户可以随意创建程序,并把它当作子程序调用,以创建更复杂的程序,且调用的层次没有限制。LabVIEW 这种创建和调用子程序的方法,使创建的程序结构模块化,更易于调试、理解和维护。同时,LabVIEW 能够虚拟很多常规仪器,通过计算机仿真完成不同的功能,这样既可节省设备投入的开支,又提高了效率。因此,学习和掌握 LabVIEW 的使用方法,用 LabVIEW 来设计虚拟频谱分析仪,是适合工程实际并能应用于实践的很可行的设计。传统频谱分析仪价 昂 且 性 能 受 限 于 频 宽 范 围 、 滤 波 、 频 谱 分 析 仪 器 的 数 目 与 最大 的 多 任 务 交 换 时 间 , 且 携 带 不 方 便 。 随 着 现 代 技 术 的 发 展 , 利 用 虚 拟 仪 器 技 术 设计 频 谱 分 析 仪 弥 补 了 传 统 频 谱 分 析 仪 的 缺 点 , 而 且 还 有 传 统 频 谱 分 析 仪 所 不 具 备 的四 大 优 势 : 性 能 高 、 扩 展 性 强 、 开 发 时 间 少 、 无 缝 集 成 。 它 更 深刻意义更在于,仪器的功能可以由用户根据需要自行设计软件来定义或扩展,而不是只能由厂家事先定义且固定不可变更。这样,用户不必购买多台不同功能或昂贵的集多种功能于一身
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