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准南露头区吐谷鲁群泥岩粘土矿物和地球化学特征分析.rar

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    露头 区吐谷鲁群 泥岩 粘土 矿物 地球化学 特征 分析
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    中图分类号:TEl21寸阂石浊六学单位代码:学 号:硕士学位论文China University of Petroleum Master Degree Thesis准噶尔盆地南缘白垩系一古近系界线研究10425S09010038Research on the Boundary of the Cretacous and Paleogenein the Southern Margin of Junggar Basin学科专业: 地质学研究方向: 油气区综合地层学作者姓名: 刘凤臣指导教师: 杨景林(高级工程师)二。一二年六月Research on the Boundary of the Cretacous andPaleogene in the Southern Margin of Junggar BasinA Thesis Submitted for the Degree of MasterCandidate:Liu FengchenSupervisor:Senior Engineer Yang JinglinSchool of GeosciencesChina University of Petroleum(EastChina)关于学位论文的独创性声明本人郑重声明:所呈交的论文是本人在指导教师指导下独立进行研究工作所取得的成果,论文中有关资料和数据是实事求是的。尽我所知,除文中已经加以标注和致谢外,本论文不包含其他人已经发表或撰写的研究成果,也不包含本人或他人为获得中国石油大学(华东)或其它教育机构的学位或学历证书而使用过的材料。与我一同工作的同志对研究所做的任何贡献均已在论文中作出了明确的说明。若有不实之处,本人愿意承担相关法律责任。学位论文作者签名:4 1)公睦 日期: 年 月 日学位论文使用授权书本人完全同意中国石油大学(华东)有权使用本学位论文(包括但不限于其印刷版和电子版),使用方式包括但不限于:保留学位论文,按规定向国家有关部f-j(机构)送交、赠送和交换学位论文,允许学位论文被查阅、借阅和复印,将学位论文的全部或部分内容编入有关数据库进行检索,采用影印、缩印或其他复制手段保存学位论文。保密学位论文在解密后的使用授权同上。学位论文作者签指导教师签名:日期:日期:年 月 日年 月 日摘 要本论文在以往研究的基础上再次对准噶尔盆地南缘的紫泥泉子组展开了系统、全面的野外地质调查和录井资料的综合分析研究。不仅在露头区紫泥泉子组创名剖面和其它剖面的紫泥泉子组新发现一批重要的介形类及轮藻化石,而且获得了包括铱在内的铂族元素含量异常及碳、氧稳定同位素异常的首次突破性发现,使准噶尔盆地白垩系一古近系年代地层界线研究取得了重大突破,是国内迄今为止除吐鲁番盆地连木沁剖面外第二条发现有铱等铂族元素异常变化和碳、氧稳定同位素异常的陆相KIT界线剖面,典型特征铱含量升高与目前国际上陆相K/T界线研究最为精准的北美地区相似。这一发现对我国陆相自垩系一古近系界线研究具有极其重要的指导价值。露头区紫泥泉子组两段性明显,以该组中上部区域性分布的厚钙质结核层为界,将其划分为上、下两个岩性段。上、下两段化石面貌迥异易于识别。但上段的介形类、轮藻化石组合面貌与上覆地层安集海河组所含同类组合存在过渡关系难以区分,只是丰度和分异度上远较上覆组合低。依据化石分布资料证明紫泥泉子组的时代应为晚白垩世一中始新世。南缘覆盖区的钻井剖面中普遍见到晚白垩世Talicypridea介形类组合:在10口钻井的紫泥泉子组下段发现了或与晚白垩世介形类化石共生的两类晚白垩世孢粉化石组合:1)Schizaeoisporites retiformis--Rugubivesiculites rugosus--Classopoll括annulatus(刚认)组合,以Schizaeoisporites和Classopollis比较发育为特征:2)Schizaeoisporites grandus—P口彤卸D厂frPs parvisaccus--Liliacidites creticus(GPC)组合,以松柏类具囊花粉非常发育,Classopollis只少量出现为特征。井下晚白垩世介形类、孢粉组合佐证了紫泥泉子组的时代结论,并提供了关于井下白垩系一古近系界线位置的重要线索。通过对2010年野外采集样品的综合分析研究以及对以往井下化石的观察和资料分析,基本锁定了准噶尔盆地南缘白垩系一古近系界线所处的大致范围:露头区位于厚钙质结核层附近向下至晚白垩世介形类消失的顶界之间:覆盖区可能位于晚白垩世介形类分布的顶界或之上某处。据此对筛选出的2条露头剖面及2口钻井剖面在预定的界线位置附近进行了二次加密采样,开展较系统的地球化学研究,结果在l条露头剖面和2口钻井剖面中发现了包括铱在内的铂族元素含量异常,4个剖面均发现了碳、氧稳定同位素613C和6180值的异常变化。铱等铂族元素含量异常均出现在厚钙质结核层底部之下1米多厚的地层内,碳、氧稳定同位素613C和8180值的异常变化出现在厚钙质结核层底部之上10厘米到十余米的地层内。据此可确定准噶尔盆地南缘的厚钙质结核层及上下邻近地层是能够与全球白垩系一古近系界线层大致对比的事件层。综合古生物资料,白垩纪一古近纪之交的撞击事件最早发生于紫泥泉子组下段的顶部,时间是晚白垩世末期,因此白垩系一古近系界线应在厚钙质结核层底部之下,大致与上、下段分界处对应。本论文根据各学科综合研究成果明确提出了盆地南缘地面和井下白垩系一古近系界线的古生物、岩性、地球化学和电性标志,为盆地南缘资源勘查中确定白垩系一古近系界线提供了准确的科学依据。关键词:准噶尔盆地南缘 紫泥泉子组 时代归属 白垩系一古近系界线 铱异常Research on the Boundary of the Cretacous and Paleogenein the Southern Margin of Junggar BasinLiu Fengchen(geology)Directed by Senior Engineer Yang JinglinAbstractBased on the former studies concerning the Ziniquanzi Formation of the southemJunggar Basin,a more systematic and comprehensive analysis of logging data and fieldgeological survey of this very area are conducted in our study.Not only a group of ostracods,charophytes and palynomorphs,but also abnormal amount of platinum group elements(PGE)including the Iridium and the abnormalities of carbon and oxygen stable isotope arediscovered in the outcrop of Ziniquanzi Formation,which is a maj or breakthrough into thestudy of the strtigraphical boundary of Cretaceous—Paleogene.The typical characteristic ofthe increase of Iridium is similar to the K/T boundary section in North America.which isknown as the most precisely studied boundary section in the world.Thus the discovery of Ourresearch provides important guiding values to to the study of the Cretaceous——Paleogeneboundary.The outcrop areas of the Ziniquanzi Formation Can be clearly divided into two parts,theupper section and the lower section,which takes the regionaly distributed thick calcareousnodules in the top and middle part of the formation as dividing line.Because of the differentfossil outlook of the two sections,it is easy to identify.However,the Ostracods and theCharophytes combination blurs with the Anj i.heihe Stratum in the overlying strata which hasthe same kind of fossil combination,SO it is difficult to distinguish the line.And the formerone’S enrichment and diversity is not SO good as the latter one.According to the material offossil distributions,the Ziniquanzi Formation dates from the late Cretaceous to the midEocene.The late Cretaceous Ostracods combination Can be commonly seen in the well 109 ofsouthern margin of the basin.Two types of the Late Cretaceous sporopollen symbiotic withthe late Cretaceous ostracods are discovered at the lower part in 1 0 drillings of the ZiniquanziFormation.The first type is Schizaeoisporites retiformis--Rugubivesic“litPJ,|ugos“5——Classopollis annulatus(RRA)combination,marked by its well.developed SchizaeoispD厂itPsand Classopollis;the second type is Schizaeoisporites grandus--ParcisporiteS parvisaccus—Liliacidites creticus(GPC)combination,in which the conifer with capsule D011en is welldeveloped,with only a few Classopollis.Through comprehensive analysis of field samples and data collected in 20 1 0,as well asour former observation of underground fossils,we basically position the approximate range ofthe Cretaceous·Paleogene boundary of the southern margin of the Junggar Basin:the outcroparea is located around the thick calcareous nodules layer down to the area where the lateCretaceous ostracods disappear,and the coverage area may be located somewhere above orclose to the end of the late Cretaceous ostracods.According to this conclusion,we take samples more densely and carefully of the chosentwo outcrops and two drilling sections in the vicinity of the predetermined boundary positionand carry out a more systematic geochemical study accordingly.The results found in anoutcrop and two drilling profiles show that there is abnormal amount of platinum groupelements,including iridium.The abnormal changes of the carbon and oxygen stableisotopes513C and 5180 are found as well.which Can determine that the thick calcareousconcretion layer and the close upper and lower strata of the southern margin of Junggar Basinis in rough contrast with the global Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.Integratingpaleontological data,we confirm that the impact happened between the turn of the Cretaceousand Paleogene should first be at the the top of the the Ziniquanzi Formation,and the time isthe Late Cretaceous.So the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary should be at the bottom of thethick calcareous nodules layer,roughly corresponding with the boundary of the upper sectionand lower section.Based on the research findings of kinds of disciplines,the special palaeobios,lithological character and geochemistry and log curves of the Cretaceous—Paleogene boundaryof the southern margin of Junggar Basin have been verified,which provides a scientific basistO determine the Cretaceous——Paleogene boundary during resources exploration of this area.Keywords:the Southern of Jungar Basin,the Ziniquanzi Formation,Geological Age,theCretaceous--Paleogene Boundary,Iridium anomaly目录第一章前言........…............…..….…....................11.1选题来源…………………………………..….….......11.2选题目的及意义.........….....................................11.3研究目标…………………………………………..…..11.4研究现状及存在问题………………………………….…..11.4.1研究现状.......…......…....….........................11.4.1存在问题......….....…..……..........................21.5主要研究内容及技术路线.…………….........................31.5.1主要研究内容…………………….………..…….....31.5.2技术路线......…….…...……..................……..31.6主要工作量及取得成果.....….………..…....................4第二章 区域地质背景……..……………………………...…..72.1区域概况…………………………………………..…..72.2构造演化及构造单元划分……………………………...…..7第三章 地层研究简史及划分沿革……………………......….…..9第四章 剖面描述及化石分布………..…............................1 34.1 紫泥泉子剖面………....…………..............….......144.2东沟剖面....………….…..….….................…....1 94.3 呼图壁河剖面……….……………………...……......254.4吐001井钻井剖面..…...….……..........…....……....284.5西5井钻井剖面....….……..…..….......................30第五章生物群面貌特征及时代讨论…………………..…..........325.1 介形类动物群...…...........................................325.1.1 露头剖面上的介形类..……..…..................…....325.1.2钻井剖面中的介形类....….............…..…..........355.2轮藻植物群......……...……...…...…..................375.3 孢子和花粉.................…....…...…........….......405.3.1孢粉组合特征…….…………….……..…….......415.4紫泥泉子组的时代.........……...…...........…….......425.5南缘几个剖面紫泥泉子组的具体时代.............................42第六章 白垩系—古近系界线附近地球化学特征…………….…….…456.1铱等铂族元素含量分析……………………一……………456.1.1 紫泥泉子剖面...………….…..….….…….........456.1.2吐001井........….........…...…....……....…..486.1.3西5井..…………………………………………506.2碳、氧稳定同位素分析....……….......….…….......….506.2.1 紫泥泉子剖面....…………….….…….…..........506.2.2东沟剖面…....……………...……..…............516.2.3吐001井….….…..……............………........516.2.4西5井....…...……………...…....…..….......516.3铱等铂族元素(PGE)和碳、氧稳定同位素分析结果讨论…….......63第七章 白垩系一古近系界线位置及标志……..….…………........667.1界线位置..………………………….………..……...667.2界线标志.…………………………………….………67第八章结论与建议.............…..…................…..........71参考文献.....…….………………………………………...74致谢…...............…..…………….……...…….........78图版说明...…..............…..……....….......…............79附图…...….….….….........…................…...........97中国石油大学(华东)硕士学位论文第一章 前 言1.1选题来源新疆油田公司于2010年初下达了《准噶尔盆地紫泥泉子组归属及白垩系一第三系界线研究》课题,隶属《准噶尔盆地油气勘探战略选区研究》项目,该课题由新疆油田公司勘探开发研究院与中国石油大学(华东)共同合作完成。1.2选题目的及意义准噶尔盆地的白垩系一古近系具有良好的含油气远景,而紫泥泉子组的时代归属及白垩系一古近系界线问题一直是准噶尔盆地白垩系、古近系研究中长期遗留的问题,成为制约勘探深入的一个重要因素。因此,提高盆地白垩纪一古近纪地层研究精度,特别是着重落实与解决白垩系一古近系界线划分,即上白垩统(紫泥泉子组一部分)所含化石的具体层位、上白垩统一古近系各岩石地层单元在地面及井下的纵横向展布规律以及与油气的关系,对进一步深化勘探无疑有着十分重要的现实意义。同时,地层学作为地学研究的基础,该研究也为提高地层研究水平、掌握地层界线对比的准确性和精度,具有十分重要的意义。1.3研究目标本论文的研究目标是查明准噶尔盆地南缘白垩系一古近系界线位置。1.4研究现状及存在问题1.4.1研究现状白垩系和古近系的界线,即中生界与新生界之间的界线,由于其中涉及中生代极为繁盛的恐龙类的绝灭、新生代哺乳动物的兴起,以及其他许多生物门类的衰退、消亡与复苏和全球自然环境的巨变,长期以来对它的研究备受地学界乃至整个科学界的关注。人们对白垩纪一古近纪间这一地质事件发生的原因看法不同,提出各种假设,具体可归于地内和地外两类因素。地内因素主要有,海平面下降、气候变冷、海水成分变化、古地磁倒转、全球范围内大规模火山喷发等;地外因素主要有行星撞击事件、超新星大爆炸、太阳耀斑等。因为白垩系和古近系的界线属于事件地层界线,界线上下的生物面貌截然不同,铱异常粘土层(厚约10cm)在全球范围内可以追索对比,因此研究程度比较高,对它的65Ma的界线年龄争议不大。古新统最下部丹尼阶(Danian Stage)的底界即白垩系一古近系界线。丹尼阶的全球界线层型剖面在突尼斯卡夫省,层型点位于界线粘土岩的底,1
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