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    Received 14 September 2016Revised 8 November 2016Accepted 8 January 2017Available online xxxxwere studied to describe oil characteristics and to provide information on the source of organic matterblack calcareous shales with high TOC more than 8% [1,2]. TheMadbi black calcareous shales contain mainly Type I/II kerogenswith a minor contribution of kerogen Type II/III [1–3]. The Madbisource rock was deposited in a marine environment under suboxicand thermalbetween oils andYemen (Fig. 1a), and located in the eastern of Yemen. The MasilaBasin is a rift-basin and was initially formed as a result of theMesozoic breakup of Gondwanaland and the evolution of theIndian Ocean during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous [8–10].The Masila Basin also developed during the Oligocene– MiddleMiocene time as a result of the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulfof Aden during the Tertiary rifting tectonic event [9]. However,these rifting tectonic events formed several normal fualts. ThePeer review under responsibility of Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute.⇑Corresponding author.E-mail address: ibnalhakimi@yahoo.com (M.H. Hakimi).Egyptian Journal of Petroleum xxx (2017) xxx–xxxContents lists availableEgyptian Journalin the Masila Basin [1–4], The main source rock in the Masila Basinis Late Jurassic Madbi Formation, which is mainly composited ofMasila Basin is one of the Mesozoic sedimentary basins ofductive oil fields in the Masila Basin, located in the N/W sectorfrom the Masila Basin (Fig. 1a). The Bayoot oilfield is also boardedwith several successful producingoilfields such as Sharyoof,Sunah,Wadi Taribah, Kharir and Tasour oilfields (Fig. 1b). However, sev-eral studies have been performed on the potential source rocksorganic matter input, palaeo-depositional conditions,maturity of the oils and (3) get the genetic linktheir potential source rock in the basin.2. Geological settinghttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2017.01.0011110-0621/C211 2017 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).Please cite this article in press as: M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi, Organic geochemistry investigations of crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin,Yemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related type, Egypt. J. Petrol. (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2017.01.001Masila Basin is one of the main petroleum basins in Yemen,which is located in the east part of Yemen (Fig. 1a). Masila Basinis considered as an oil-richprovince in Yemen and contains several,well known oilfields (Fig. 1b). The dataset used herein is from theBayoot oilfield (Fig. 1b). The Bayoot oilfield is one of the most pro-formed on the oils accumulated in some oilfields in the MasilaBasin i.e., Sunah, Wadi Taribah and Kharir oilfields [6,7].The current study focuses on the organic geochemical charac-teristics of the oil samples from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin.The main objectives were to: (1) characterize the oil types andcompositions in Bayoot oilfield; (2) provide insight into the sourceKeywords:Crude oilBasement reservoir rocksBiomarkerOrganic source inputBayoot oilfieldMasila Basin1. Introductioninput and the genetic link between oils and their potential source rock in the basin. The bulk geochemicalresults of whole oil and gasoline hydrocarbons indicate that the Bayoot oils are normal crude oil, withhigh hydrocarbons of more than 60%. The hydrocarbons are dominated by normal, branched and cyclicalkanes a substantial of the light aromatic compounds, suggesting aliphatic oil-prone kerogen. The highabundant of normal, branched and cyclic alkanes also indicate that the Bayoot oils are not biodegradationoils.The biomarker distributions of isoprenoid, hopane, aromatic and sterane and their cross and triangularplots suggest that the Bayoot oils are grouped into one genetic family and were generated from marineclay-rich source rock that received mixed organic matter and deposited under suboxic conditions. Thebiomarker distributions of the Bayoot oils are consistent with those of the Late Jurassic Madbi source rockin the basin. Biomarker maturity and oil compositions data also indicate that the Bayoot oils were gen-erated from mature source rock with peak oil-window maturity.C211 2017 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute. ThisisanopenaccessarticleundertheCCBY-NC-NDlicense(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).conditions [5]. The geochemical investigations have also been per-Article history:Thirteen crude oil samples from fractured basement reservoir rocks in the Bayoot oilfield, Masila BasinFull Length ArticleOrganic geochemistry investigations of crudethe Masila Basin, east Yemen and their implicationmatter and source-related typeMohammed Hail Hakimi⇑, Saddam A. Al-SufiGeology Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, 6803 Taiz, Yemenarticle info abstractjournal homepage: www.oils from Bayoot oilfield infor origin of organicat ScienceDirectof Petroleumsciencedirect.comeast2 M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi/Egyptian Journalmain structures in the Masila Basin are characterized by horst,tilted fault blocks (Fig. 2), which are considered as a main struc-tural trap for the hydrocarbon accumulations in Masila oilfields(Fig. 1b).The stratigraphic section in the Masila Basin is composed ofMesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary units with dominated by aFig. 1. (a) Main sedimentary basins in Republic of Yemen (modified after Beydoun et al.(Block 53), Hadramawt region of the Republic of Yemen.Please cite this article in press as: M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi, Organic geochemistryYemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related tyof Petroleum xxx (2017) xxx–xxxthick Mesozoic succession (Fig. 3). However, these sedimentaryrocks are mainly marine and subordinate continental sediments,which are composed of clastic, carbonate, shale and anhydrite(Fig. 3). The stratigraphic section of the Masila Basin was subdi-vided into three major Tectono-stratigraphic phases and rangesfrom Precambrian to Tertiary (Fig. 3).[8]) and (b) location map of some Masila Basin’s Blocks including Bayoot oilfieldinvestigations of crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin, eastpe, Egypt. J. Petrol. (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2017.01.001M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi/Egyptian JournalThe pre-rift section ranges in age from Pre-Cambrian to MiddleJurassic, which comprises basement and Lower-Middle Jurassicsediments (Fig. 3). The basement rocks of Precambrian age consistmainly of fractured igneous and metamorphic complex rocks,which forms a good reservoir in some oilfields (i.e., Sunh, WadiTaribah and Bayoot) of the Masila Basin (unpublished oil componyreports). The Lower-Middle Jurassic units comprise sandstone andlimestone (Kuhlan and Shuqra Formations), which overlay uncon-formably the Precambrian basement rocks (Fig. 3).The Lower Jurassic Kuhlan Formation is predominantly clasticwith local basement topography commonly providing the prove-nance of sediment. This formation includes fluviatile and arkosicred beds that grade upward into a shallow-marine facies and rep-resents the early transgressive phases of the corroborating the evi-dence for a tectonically quiescent platform. The unconformitysurface between pre-rift and syn-rift sedimentary sequences arerepresented by the later Shuqra Formation of Middle Jurassic age(Fig. 3). The Shuqra Formation is a neurotic limestone with richlyfossiliferous marls.The syn-rift sequence comprise predominately limestones andshales with clastic sediments, which were developed during LateJurassic to Early Cretaceous [9]. The syn-rift sequence includesMadbi and Naifa Formations (Fig. 3). The Late Jurassic Madbi For-mation underlain unconformably by pre-rift Shuqra sediemnts,which is predominantly mainly limestone shale with mudstone.The lithofacies of the Madbi sediemnts reflects open marine envi-ronment [5,8] and can be divided into two members (Fig. 3). Thelower member, Madbi limestone, is composed mainly of porousFig. 2. Structure contours at the top of the Basement rock in the Masila oilfieldsPlease cite this article in press as: M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi, Organic geochemistryYemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related type,of Petroleum xxx (2017) xxx–xxx 3limestone, shale layers, with basal sand that forms a good reservoirin some oilfields of the Masila Basin. The upper member is calledMadbi shale that is composed of laminated organic-rich shaleand mudstone and considered to be the most prolific oil-pronesource rock in the basin [1,2,4,6,11]. The upper Madbi sedimentsoverlain conformably by the Naifa Formation (Fig. 3). The Naifasediments were deposited during the latest Jurassic to early Creta-ceous time (Fig. 3), and are mainly composed of silt and dolomiticlimestone and lime mudstone with wackestone [8].The post-rift sequence is underlain unconformably by syn-riftsediments, composed of thick clastic and carbonate rocks and sub-ordinate anhydrite (Fig. 3). The Cretaceous units comprise the Saar,Qishn, Harshiyat, Fartaq, Mukalla and Sharwayn formations(Fig. 3). The Saar Formation is mainly composed of limestone anddolomite, with mudstone and sandstone intercalations (Fig. 3).The Saar Formation conformably overlies the Naifa Formationand unconformably underlies the Qishn Formation [8,12,13]. TheQishn Formation is divided into two members, Upper Qishn Car-bonate and Lower Qishn Clastic Members. The Lower Qishn clasticMember represents the main reservoir rock in the Masila Basin[14,15]. The Qishn clastic underling the Qishn Carbonates, whichcomprises carbonate rocks with red shale beds at the base and rep-resented the proven seal rock in the Masila Basin (Fig. 3).During the late Early Cretaceous, alternating regression andtransgression occurred. This pattern developed clastic (HarshiyatFormation) and carbonate rocks (Fartaq Formation) interbeddedwith each other. A similar pattern of sedimentation occurred inUpper Cretaceous time, where fluvial systems (Mukalla Formation)showing the structural setting including anticline folds and faults.investigations of crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin, eastEgypt. J. Petrol. (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2017.01.0014 M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi/Egyptian Journalprograded southeastward in the Masila Basin. The Late CretaceousSharwayn Formation deposits are composed mainly of shale. In theLate Paleocene, sea level rose and resulted in the formation ofFig. 3. Generalized stratigraphic column of Pre-Cambrian- Tertiary sequencesPlease cite this article in press as: M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi, Organic geochemistryYemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related tyof Petroleum xxx (2017) xxx–xxxtransgressive shale deposits (Shammer Member) at the base ofthe Umm Er Radhuma carbonate formation. The Umm Er RadhumaFormation consists of limestone (hard to medium) interbeddedin the Masila Basin showing petroleum elements (after Hakimi et al. [2]).investigations of crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin, eastpe, Egypt. J. Petrol. (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2017.01.001Table 1Chemical composition results of the crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin.Oilfields Samples ID Reservoir/age Hydrocarbons (saturated+ aromatic) (wt%)Non-hydrocarbons (polar+ asphaltene) (wt%)BayootoilfieldB-9, B-9 flow line Fractured basement rock/Pre-Cambrian76–80 24–20B-7/3229m, B-7/3155m and B-7/3114m 68–74 32–26BSW-3, B-10, BSW-4, B-6, B-9, BSE-2, BSW-5, B-7flow line and B-1086–89 14–11Fig. 4. Gas chromatograms of whole oils from Bayoot oilfield.M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi/Egyptian Journal of Petroleum xxx (2017) xxx–xxx 5Please cite this article in press as: M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi, Organic geochemistry investigations of crude oils from Bayoot oilfield in the Masila Basin, eastYemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related type, Egypt. J. Petrol. (2017), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2017.01.001alkanesFig. 5. Star plot of ratios derived from normal6 M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi/Egyptian Journalwith thin layers of white to brown microcrystalline dolomite, andis influenced by the unconformitybetweenthe Cretaceous and Ter-tiarysequences. It is overlain by shale (Jiza’Formation). Jiza’ depos-its are widespread in the Early Eocene followed by the deposits ofthe anhydrite rocks (Rus Formation).3. Samples and experimental methodsIn this study, thirteen crude oil samples representing Pre-Cambrian basement reservoir rocks in the Bayoot oilfield, north-west Masila Basin (Fig. 1b; Table 1) were investigated usingorganic geochemical analyses. These analyses include oil fraction-ation, gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography–massspectrometry (GC–MS). The geochemical results presented in thisstudy were conducted by Applied Petroleum Technology Ltd., Uni-ted Kingdom, and made available through the Petroleum Explo-ration and Production Authority (PEPA), Republic of Yemen(personal communication).The whole oil samples were analysed using GC-provided withFlame ionization Detector (FID) instrument in order to examinethe whole hydrocarbon constituents (saturated and aromatic).The GC analysis was performed on the whole oil samples usingan Agilent 7890A instrument and the compounds were separatedusing a HP PONA column (length: 50 m, internal diameter:0.2 mm, film thickness: 0.5lm) and temperature programmedare 30–130 C176C at a rate of 2 C176C/min, and then held for 25 min at320 C176C.The asphaltene were removed from whole oil samples by dis-solved the oils in an excess of n-pentane. The solution was leftfor at least 12 h in a dark place and centrifuged and the suspensionof asphaltene was then filtered and measured. After removed theasphaltene from oils, the maltene components were subsequentlyfractionated into saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon,Please cite this article in press as: M.H. Hakimi, S.A. Al-Sufi, Organic geochemistryYemen and their implication for origin of organic matter and source-related tyof the whole oils from Bayoot oilfield.of Petroleum xxx (2017) xxx–xxxand NSO (nitrogen-sulfur-oxygen compounds or resin) fractionsusing gravity-flow column chromatography. Hexane is used toelute the saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, Dichloromethaneto elute the NSO fraction.The saturated fraction was then analysed by a GC–MS instru-mentand used to provide biomarker components. The GC–MS usedis a Micromass ProSpec high resolution instrument with a CP-Sil-5CB-MS column (length: 60 m, internal diameter: 0.25 mm, filmthickness: 0.25 micronmeter). The temperature programmedranges from 50 to 120 C176C at a rate of 2 C176C/min, and then held for20 min at 320 C176C.The Selected Ion Recording (SIR) capabilities of the data acqui-sition system
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