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图像传输与处理教学辅助软件的研制.rar

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    图像 传输 处理 教学 辅助 软件 研制
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    Introduction of Digital image processionInterest in digital image processing methods stems from two principal application areas: improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation; and processing of image data for storage, transmission, and representation for autonomous machine perception. This chapter has several objectives: (1) to define the scope of the field that we call image processing; (2) to give a historical perspective of the origins of this field; (3) to give you an idea of the state of the art in image processing by examining some of the principal areas in which it is applied; (4) to discuss briefly the principal approaches used in digital image processing; (5) to give an overview of the components contained in a typical, general-purpose image processing system; and (6) to provide direction to the books and other literature where image processing work normally is reported.1.1 What Is Digital Image ProcessingAn image may be defined as a two-dimensional function, f (x, y), where x and y are spatial (plane) coordinates, and the amplitude of fat any pair of coordinates (x, y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at that point. When x, y, and the intensity values of fare all finite, discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image. The field of digital image processing refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. Note that a digital image is composed of a finite number of elements, each of which has a particular location and value. These elements are called picture elements, image elements, pels, and pixels. Pixel is the term used most widely to denote the elements of a digital image. We consider these definitions in more formal terms in Chapter 2.Vision is the most advanced of our senses, so it is not surprising that images play the single most important role in human perception. However, unlike humans, who are limited to the visual band of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, imaging machines cover almost the entire EM spectrum, ranging from gamma to radio waves. They can operate on images generated by sources that humans are not accustomed to associating with images. These include ultrasound, electron microscopy, and computer-generated images. Thus, digital image processing encompasses a wide and varied field of applications.There is no general agreement among authors regarding where image processing stops and other related areas, such as image analysis and computer vision, start. Sometimes a distinction is made by defining image processing as a discipline in which both the input and output of a process are images. We believe this to be a limiting and somewhat artificial boundary. For example, under this definition, even the trivial task of computing the average intensity of an image (which yields a single number) would not be considered an image processing operation. On the other hand, there are fields such as computer vision whose ultimate goal is to use computers to emulate human vision, including learning and being able to make inferences and take actions based on visual inputs. This area itself is a branch of artificial intelligence (AI) whose objective is to emulate human intelligence. The field of AI is in its earliest stages of infancy in terms of development, with progress having been much slower than originally anticipated. The area of image analysis (also called image understanding) is in between image processing and computer vision.There are no clear-cut boundaries in the continuum from image processing at one end to computer vision at the other. However, one useful paradigm is to consider three types of computerized processes in this continuum: low-, mid-, and high-level processes. Low-level processes involve primitive operations such as image preprocessing to reduce noise, contrast enhancement, and image sharpening. A low-level process is characterized by the fact that both its inputs and outputs are images. Mid-level processing on images involves tasks such as segmentation (partitioning an image into regions or objects), description of those objects to reduce them to a form suitable for computer processing, and classification (recognition) of individual objects. A mid-level process is characterized by the fact that its inputs generally are images, but its outputs are attributes extracted from those images (e.g., edges, contours, and the identity of individual objects). Finally, higher-level processing involves “making sense“ of an ensemble of recognized objects, as in image analysis, and, at the far end of the continuum, performing the cognitive functions normally associated with vision.Based on the preceding comments, we see that a logical place of overlap between image processing and image analysis is the area of recognition of individual regions or objects in an image. Thus, what we call in this book digital image processing encompasses processes whose inputs and outputs are images and, in addition, encompasses processes that extract attributes from images, up to and including the recognition of individual objects. As an illustration to clarify these concepts, consider the area of automated analysis of text. The processes of acquiring an image of the area containing the text, preprocessing that image, extracting (segmenting) the individual characters, describing the characters in a form suitable for computer processing, and recognizing those individual characters are in the scope of what we call digital image processing in this book. Making sense of the content of the nape may be viewed as being in the domain of image analysis and even computer vision, depending on the level of complexity implied by the statement “making sense.“ As will become evident shortly, digital image processing, as we have defined it, is used successfully in abroad range of areas of exceptional social and economic value. The concepts developed in the following chapters are the foundation for the methods used in those application areas.1.2 The Origins of Digital Image ProcessingOne of the first applications of digital images was in the newspaper industry, when pictures were first sent by submarine cable between London and New York. Introduction of the Bartlane cable picture transmission system in the early 1920s reduced the time required to transport a picture across the Atlantic from more than a week to less than three hours. Specialized printing equipment coded pictures for cable transmission and then reconstructed them at the receiving end. Figure 1.1 was transmitted in this way and reproduced on a telegraph printer fitted with typefaces simulating a halftone pattern.Some of the initial problems in improving the visual quality of these early digital pictures were related to the selection of printing procedures and the distribution of intensity levels. The printing method used to obtain Fig.1.1 was abandoned toward the end of 1921 in favor of a technique based on photographic reproduction made from tapes perforated at the telegraph receiving terminal. Figure 1.2 shows an image obtained using this method. The improvemenu over Fig.1.1 are evident, both in tonal quality and in resolution.FIGURE 1.1 A digital picture produced FIGURE 1.2 A digital picture made in in 1921 from a coded tape by a telegraph 1922 from a tape punched after the printer with special type faces. signals had crossed the Atlantic twice.The early Bartlane systems were capable of coding images in five distinct levels of gray. This capability was increased to 15 levels in 1929. Figure 1.3 is typical of the type of images that could be obtained using the 15-tone equipment. During this period, introduction of a system for developing a film plate via light beams that were modulated by the coded picture tape improved the reproduction process considerably.Although the examples just cited involve digital images, they are not considered digital image processing results in the context of our definition because computers were not involved in their creation. Thus, the history of digital image processing is intimately tied to the development of the digital computer. In fact, digital images require so much storage and computational power that progress in the field of digital image processing has been dependent on the development of digital computers and of supporting technologies that include data storage, display, and transmission.The idea of a computer goes back to the invention of the abacus in Asia Minor, more than 5000 years ago. More recently, there were developments in the past two centuries that are the foundation of what we call a computer today.However, the basis for what we call a modern digital computer dates back to only the 1940s with the introduction by John von Neumann of two key concepts: (1) a memory to hold a stored program and data, and (2) conditional branching. These two ideas are the foundation of a central processing unit (CPU), which is at the heart of computers today. Starting with von Neumann,there were a series of key advances that led to computers powerful enough to be used for digital image processing. Briefly, these advances may be summarued as follows: (1) the invention of the transistor at Bell Laboratories in 1948;(2) the development in the 1950s and 1960s of the high-level programming languages COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN(Formula Translator);(3) the invention of the integrated circuit (IC) at Texas Instruments in 1958; (4) the development of operating systems in the early 1960s; (5) the development of the microprocessor (a single chip consisting of the central processing unit, memory, and input and output controls) by Intel in the early 1970s;FIGURE 1.3 Unretouched cable picture of Generals Pershing and Foch,transmitted in 1929 from London to New York by 15-tone equipment..(6) introduction by IBM of the personal computer in 1981; and (7) progressive miniaturization of components, starting with large scale integration (LI) in the late 1970s, then very large scale integration (VLSI) in the 1980s,to the present use of ultra large scale integration (ULSI). Concurrent with these advances were developments in the areas of mass storage and display systerns, both of which are fundamental requirements for digital image processing.The first computers powerful enough to carry out meaningful image processing tasks appeared in the early 1960s. The birth of what we call digital image processing today can be traced to the availability of those machines and to the onset of the space program during that period. It took the combination of those two developments to bring into focus the potential of digital image processing concepts. Work on using computer techniques for improving images from a space probe began at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena,California) in 1964 when pictures of the moon transmitted by Ranger 7 were processed by a computer to correct various types of image distortion inherent in the on-board television camera. Figure 1.4 shows the first image of the moon taken by Ranger 7 on July 31, 1964 at 9:09 a.Nt. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), about 17 minutes before impacting the lunar surface (the markers,called reseau marks, are used for geometric corrections, as discussed in Chapter 2). This also is the first image of the moon taken by a U.S. spacecraft.The imaging lessons learned with Ranger 7 served as the basis for improved methods used to enhance and restore images from the Surveyor missions to the moon, the Mariner series of flyby missions to Mars, the Apollo manned flights to the moon, and others.In parallel with space applications, digital image processing techniques began in the late 1960s and early 1970s to be used in medical imaging, remote Earth resources observations, and astronomy. The invention in the early 1970s of computerized axial tomography (CAT), also called computerized tomography (CT) for short, is one of the most important events in the application of image processing in medical diagnosis. Computerized axial tomography is a process in which a ring of detectors encircles an object (or patient) and an X-ray source, concentric with the detector ring, rotates about the object.FIGURE 1.4 The first picture of the moon by a U.S.spacecraft. Ranger7 took this image on July 31,1964 at 9:09 a.nn. EDT about 17 minutesbefore impacting the lunar surface.The X-rays pass through the object and are collected at the opposite end by the corresponding detectors in the ring. As the source rotates, this procedure is repeated. Tomography consists of algorithms that use the sensed data to construct an image that represents a “slice“ through the object. Motion of the object in a direction perpendicular to the ring of detectors produces a set of such slices, which constitute a three-dimensional (3-D) rendition of the inside of the object. Tomography was invented independently by Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield and Professor Allan M. Cormack, who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize in Medicine for their invention. It is interesting to note that X-rays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen, for which he received the 1901 Nobel Prize for Physics. These two inventions, nearly 100 years apart, led to some of the most important applications of image processing today.From the 1960s until the present, the field of image processing has grown vigorously. In addition to applications in medicine and the space program, digital image processing techniques now are used in a broad range of applicadons. Computer procedures are used to enhance the contrast or code the intensity levels into color for easier interpretation of X-rays and other images used in industry, medicine, and the biological sciences. Geographers use the same or similar techniques to study pollution patterns from aerial and satellite imagery. Image enhancement and restoration procedures are used to process degraded images of unrecoverable objects or experimental results too expensive to duplicate. In archeology, image processing methods have successfully restored blurred pictures that were the only available records of rare artifacts lost or damaged after being photographed. In physics and related fields, computer techniques routinely enhance images of experiments in areas such as high-energy plasmas and electron microscopy. Similarly successful applicadons of image processing concepts can be found in astronomy, biology, nuclear medicine, law enforcement, defense, and industry.These examples illustrate processing results intended for human interpretation. The second major area of application of digital image processing techniques mentioned at the beginning of this chapter is in solving problems dealing with machine perception. In this case, interest is on procedures for extracting from an image information in a form suitable for computer processing. Often,this information bears little resemblance to visual features that humans use in interpret
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