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    中国矿业大学 2012 届本科生毕业设计 第 120 页翻译部分中国矿业大学 2012 届本科生毕业设计 第 121 页英文原文Mine Green MiningHui-qi ShiTiandi Science and Technology co. Ltd, Beijing 100013, ChinaAbstract:With the mine development and utilization, the mine environment problems and subordinate geology disaster phenomenon it causes have been revealed gradually, some also lead to serious results. Therefore, the balanced relation of “resources mining - environmental protection - mining area sustainable development” is a very important topic of resource development in our country in the 21st century, named “green mining”. In accordance with this balanced relational mining area development pattern, it is called “the green mining area” pattern of the sustainable development. One of it’s core contents is to be aware of “green mining”.Keywords: Mine environment; Resources mining; Green mining1. The brought forward of the green mining Nowadays, fossil fuels still occupy the dominant station in the world's energy structure, as shown in Figure 1. But as the expansion of industrial production and advancement of the industrial technique, the demand for energy is growing, at the same time the fossil energy resources have gradually depleted, and the unrestrained use of fossil energy has given rise to increasingly serious environment problems.Fig.1. the situation of the world energyAt present, the problems of energy and environment have become the major focus of global concern, “sustainable development“ has become a common theme in today's world. At the same time, environmental problems of mine have also attracted large concerns and attention of the 中国矿业大学 2012 届本科生毕业设计 第 122 页international community. With the increasing depletion of fossil energy and the environment getting worse, carrying out the research of the technology of the green mine in the mining area, achieving a clean and efficient utilization of energy, the development and utilization of biomass energy has become a global issue. The father and the repair of the zoology in the mine area is an inevitable requirement in the mining industry of the world mining area, it will be an inevitable and important issue of the environment and the development of the world.Green mining “follows the economic cycle of the principles of green industry, which coordinates the formation of mining and the environment, it is a technology of exploitation which achieves the goal of “low production, high efficiency, low emissions“. Green mining in the coal mining area is the only way for the healthy development of the coal industry, for it can prevent or reduce the adverse environmental impacts from coal mining as much as possible, so as to achieve the best economic and environmental benefits in the exploitation of coal resources.2. The effect and the manifestation of the coal mining 2.1. Coal mining destroys water resource Fig.2. coal mining area subsidence induce serious soil erosionThe destruction of water resource caused by the coal mining is mainly manifested in two aspects. On the one hand, it is in the process of the coal mining, because of man-made drainage and dewatering mining, the formation of the hydraulic fracture of the natural aquifer coal dewatering would result in the water level's drop significantly in a large area of the ground. A major mining area of water supply dried up, making surface of earth dry, that will destroy the natural landscape, the reduction of agricultural production, which can cause serious desertification and soil surface, shown in Figure 2.On the other hand, the exploitation causes the pollution of surface water and groundwater. Mine water, waste heap leaching of water, coal preparation waste water containing such as coal, rock flour suspended solids and soluble inorganic salts. In western of China, Huang-Huai area, the mine water has salinity highly, and 中国矿业大学 2012 届本科生毕业设计 第 123 页high-sulfur coal mine in the South, mostly of acid mine drainage. Discharging the waste water into the surface river, sea and reservoirs, and others would lead to more serious pollution of water resources, lead to the earth's poor and causes vegetation pollution in the mining area, it has also affected the sustainable development of agriculture seriously.2.2. Coal mining results in the destruction of land resources The destruction of the land resources caused by the coal mining are displayed in two aspects ,on onehand, the surface subsidence and waste pressure account for mainly in the well works mining, on the other hand, the hurt and foreign direct dug dump pressure account for mainly in the open-pit mining, as shown in Figure 3.A large number of harmful gases such as SO2, CO2, H2S and nitrogen compounds, such as dust was discharged during the process of the spontaneous combustion of waste rock, which will pollute the air, result in acid rain, pollute water and land, inhibiting the growth of plants, endangering human health.(a) land damage caused by goaf subsidence (b) Anjialing open pit mining fieldFig.3. destruction of the land resources induced by the coal mining2.3. Produce the massive virulent noxious gases In the underground ore bed, there are massive virulent noxious gases, like CH4, CO, CO2, SO, SO2,H2S and so on. Because mines, loose and carries the massive dust row after the mine ventilation to the atmosphere. Approximately 10,000,000,000 m3 of CH4 is discharged into the atmosphere from the coal mining every year in our country, the emissions dust approximately 400,000 tons, not only this reason has caused the serious environmental pollution in the mining area , as shown in Figure 4. Moreover, this will lead to the consequence that hundreds of thousands of people may get pulmonary disease.2.4. Traditional methods of exploitation create ecological and environmental problems (1) Coal mining causes the migration of the strata, it causes the water and the gas flowing in 中国矿业大学 2012 届本科生毕业设计 第 124 页the rock layer and causes coal mine gas accident and the incidents of water bursting. At the same time, the gas is discharged into the atmosphere which will produce environmental pollution. Coal mining immediately influences ground water outflow, even causes the land desertification. According to the calculations, the coal mines the national average ton coal water price is 2 t, northern region 10 t, reaches 47 t high, the coal mine displacement has occupied the northern area karst water resources 19%, the use factor only account for 30%. (2) Coal mining causes the rock layer migration, then causes settlement of the surface and damage of the farmland and the building facilities. According to the statistical data, the destruction which because of the nation coal mining occupies land of 430,000 hm2, picks ten thousand tons coal collapse land 0.2 hm2 every time equally, every year increases the collapse approximately 20,000 hm2. Piles up under the building, the water body and railroad's coal resource reaches tens of billions t to be unable to mine, the cause mine pit discards ahead of time. (3) Coal mining forms bulk depositions in ground gangue, both takes the fertile farmland, and causes the environmental pollution. Already accumulated gangue 3,000,000,000 t, and was increased every year still by 1.5 ~ 200,000,000 t quantities. In the national 1500 hillocks has 140 in the spontaneous combustion, to the atmosphere, the land and the environment causes the serious pollution. (4) Along with our country mine pit mining depth's unceasing increase, the frequency which power disasters and so on underground pressure appearance and impact geostatic pressure occur increases, the intensity increases, endangers the mine pit the safety in production. Fig.4. coal mining induce air pollution3. coal resource green mining technology system 3.1. Protect water mining technology The goal of protect water mining is to be conscious of water resources protection during the prevention and control of water inrush, carrying on conscious protection of water resources to make the disturbance to the hydrological environment of coal mining of mining disturbance less than the capacity of regiona hydrological environment. Research after mining the overburden 中国矿业大学 2012 届本科生毕业设计 第 125 页breaking rule and the ground wate funnel's formation mechanism, as well as under each geological condition the mining period rock laye activity and the underground water percolation's relations, From all mining methods and ground groutin measures, etc., realizing the mine pit water resources protection and the comprehensive utilization.Ensure the selection of mining areas is a reasonable to remain suitable supposes the waterproofing (granulated substance) the coal (crag) the column and the application reasonable method of exploitation. 3.2. Measures to reduce the sink (1) Backfill mining The backfill mining is backfill the mining goals by useing the foreign materials, including the scoop up last bit of water granulated substance backfill, the waste filling and so on. (2) Banding mining Strip mining is currently under the control of the building of surface coal mining subsidence, which is most widely used. Banding mining is currently the main technical way to control the surface subsidence when coal mining under the building in our country. And the technical way is widespread. The banding mining principle is the coal bed which must mine divides the quite regular banding to carry on mining, picks one, and keeps one, the banding virgin coal support overburden which the use retains, thus the reduced cap rock settlement, controls the surface the migration and the distortion, serves the ground protection purpose. (3) Delamination mining On the gently inclined angle thick coal seam, using the way of tilted layered mining, layered submining programs can reduce the impact of ground-level structures from the surface submersion ,when we slice mining ,we should control the thickness of each stratified, So that the deformation of the surface caused by the exploitation does not exceed the surface deformation allowed. (4) Coordinated mining When mining thick coal seam, we should have a reasonable design the spacing of mining of various working surfaces, the mutual position and the mining sequence, cause to achieve a counter-balance or a part counter-balance mutually of the mine the surface which a coal bed (working surface) produces to distort and mine the surface which another coal bed (working surface) produces to distort ,in order to reduce the mining-induced surface deformation to achieve the goal of protect the ground built structures. This technology must maintain certain wrong distance, therefore it is difficult to organize production. (5) Overburden rock's abscission layer note thick liquid The technology of overburden rock's abscission layer belt high pressure note thick liquid to slow down the surface's subsidence is Drilling through the ground to the top of mined-out area of separation of overlying strata with high-pressure injection of liquid filling material, to take control of the subsidence of overlying strata, so as to achieves the goal of control the surface subsidence . 中国矿业大学 2012 届本科生毕业设计 第 126 页3.3. Coordinated mining technologies of coals and gas According to the differences of the mine method of coal bed methane ,the source of the pressure of gas's and the mine method of the pressure gas ,we have constructed the technical system chart of“a total of coal and coal-bed methane mining” , as shown in Figure 5. 3.4. The processing of the gangue in the mine One problem of green mining technologies is the processing of the mine shaft gangue. The first step is to strengthen the maintenance technology of the coal lane, so as to create less or no waste rocks. With the increase of the mining depth, rocks Lane's digging will be inevitable, therefore the gangue will not be taken out of wells, it can be used as filling material. Thus, there is a technology and the system question a gangue down-the hole treatment underground, the key is the cost of it. Another problem is whether the gangue can be disposed on the ground for recycle waste, for example, change it into the building material, the hydraulic fill and so on .After all, the processing of the gangue on the ground is simpler than underground treatment.t e c h n o l o g y s y s t e m o f c o a l a n d g a s c o o r d i n a t e m i n i n gg r o u n d d r i l l i n g d r a i n a g e m i n i n g r e l i e f d r a i n a g em i n i n g - i n d u c e d f r a c t u r e sc o a l m i n i n gg o a f d r a i n a g e d r a i n a g e o f n o t m i n i n gs u r r o u n d r o c k C M B d r a i n a g et h e c o a l s e a mg a s r e l i e fn e a r b y c o a l s e a mg a s r e l i e fo v e r l y i n g f a r c o a l s e a m g a s r e l i e fg o a f g a s r e l i e fu n d e r g r o u n d d r i l l i n g a n d r o a d w a y d r a i n a g eg r o u n d d r i l l i n g d r a i n a g ep r e s s u r e r e l i e f g a s e x t r a c t i o nC M B u t i l i z a t i o n , e l i m i n a t e a i r p o l l u t i o ni m p r o v e t h e g a s r e c o v e r y r a t i o n ; r e d u c e m i n e g a s e m i s s i o n ; r e d u c e t h e c o d t o f m i n e v e n t i l a t i o n ; e l i m i n a t e g a s a c c i d e n t sFig.5. technology system of coal and gas coordinate mining中国矿业大学 2012 届本科生毕业设计 第 127 页3.5. Gasification technology of coal underground The gasification of the coal underground is refers to the process of obtain combustible gas at the coal storage sites directly, That is changing solid minerals into gaseous fuel through thermo-chemical process on the ground , then ejected at the ground from the drill hole platoon, supplying the users. It is a kind of Comprehensive green mining technology. 4. The significance of the green mining in the mining area (1) The exploitation of green mining requires the improvement of the technology level. China's coal industry haven’t even as a whole, following the path of extensive development for a long time, intensive level of production is very low. The exploitation and innovation of multi-dimensional and multi-angle arethe necessary requirement for Green mining.(2) Green mining systems require the efficient use of products. Greenpeace demands the exploitation of resources in a broad perspective within the framework of the coal mining area, water, coal-bed methane, land, coal gangue, as well as in other nearby deposits, and other resources available, we should minimize the negative impact on the environment while in the pursuit of the best economic and social benefits while. (3) The green mining requests a comprehensive evaluation of the enterprises, considering the ecological environment. Exploitation of the large green uses the way of ecological system to look on and evaluate the economic activities of enterprises, to achieve sustainable development of the ecological system. Which requests them to pu
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